A non-toxic Hsp90 inhibitor protects neurons from A beta-induced toxicity
ABSTRACT The molecular chaperones have been implicated in numerous neurodegenerative disorders in which the defining pathology is misfolded proteins and the accumulation of protein aggregates. In Alzheimer's disease, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein results in its dissociation from microtubules and the formation of pathogenic aggregates. An inverse relationship was demonstrated between Hsp90/Hsp70 levels and aggregated tau, suggesting that Hsp90 inhibitors that upregulate these chaperones could provide neuroprotection. We recently identified a small molecule novobiocin analogue, A4 that induces Hsp90 overexpression at low nanomolar concentrations and sought to test its neuroprotective properties. A4 protected neurons against Abeta-induced toxicity at low nanomolar concentrations that paralleled its ability to upregulate Hsp70 expression. A4 exhibited no cytotoxicity in neuronal cells at the highest concentration tested, 10 microM, thus providing a large therapeutic window for neuroprotection. In addition, A4 was transported across BMECs in vitro, suggesting the compound may permeate the blood-brain barrier in vivo. Taken together, these data establish A4, a C-terminal inhibitor of Hsp90, as a potent lead for the development of a novel class of compounds to treat Alzheimer's disease.
SourceAvailable from: Jin-Tai Yu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the first most common neurodegenerative disease. Despite a large amount of research, the pathogenetic mechanism of AD has not yet been clarified. The two hallmarks of the pathology of AD are the extracellular senile plaques (SPs) of aggregated amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide and the accumulation of the intracellular microtubule-associated protein tau into fibrillar aggregates. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play a key role in preventing protein misfolding and aggregation, and Hsp90 can be viewed as a ubiquitous molecular chaperone potentially involved in AD pathogenesis. A role of Hsp90 regulates the activity of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), the master regulator of the heat shock response. In AD, Hsp90 inhibitors may redirect neuronal aggregate formation, and protect against protein toxicity by activation of HSF-1 and the subsequent induction of heat shock proteins, such as Hsp70. Therefore, we review here to further discuss the recent advances and challenges in targeting Hsp90 for AD therapy.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:796869. DOI:10.1155/2014/796869 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative disease is one of the greatest health concerns today and with no effective treatment in sight, it is crucial that researchers find a safe and successful therapeutic. While neurofibrillary tangles are considered the primary tauopathy hallmark, more evidence continues to come to light to suggest that soluble, intermediate tau aggregates-tau oligomers-are the most toxic species in disease. These intermediate tau species may also be responsible for the spread of pathology, suggesting that oligomeric tau may be the best therapeutic target. Here we summarize results for the modulation of tau by molecular chaperones, small molecules and aggregation inhibitors, post-translational modifications, immunotherapy, other techniques, and future directions.ACS Chemical Neuroscience 07/2014; 5(9). DOI:10.1021/cn500143n · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease, characterized by the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and β amyloid (Aβ), currently lacks effective treatment. Chaperone proteins, such as the heat shock protein (Hsp) 90, form macromolecular complexes with co-chaperones, which can regulate tau metabolism and Aβ processing. Although small molecule inhibitors of Hsp90 have been successful at ameliorating tau and Aβ burden, their development into drugs to treat disease has been slow due to the off- and on-target effects of this approach as well as challenges with the pharmacology of current scaffolds. Thus, other approaches are being developed to improve these compounds and to target co-chaperones of Hsp90 in an effort to limit these liabilities.Areas covered: This article discusses the most current developments in Hsp90 inhibitors including advances in blood–brain barrier permeability, decreased toxicity and homolog-specific small-molecule inhibitors. In addition, we discuss current strategies targeting Hsp90 co-chaperones rather than Hsp90 itself to reduce off-target effects.Expert opinion: Although Hsp90 inhibitors have proven their efficacy at reducing tau pathology, they have yet to meet with success in the clinic. The development of Hsp90/tau complex-specific inhibitors and further development of Hsp90 co-chaperone-specific drugs should yield more potent, less toxic therapeutics.Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 07/2014; 18(10). DOI:10.1517/14728222.2014.943185 · 4.90 Impact Factor