A non-toxic Hsp90 inhibitor protects neurons from A beta-induced toxicity
ABSTRACT The molecular chaperones have been implicated in numerous neurodegenerative disorders in which the defining pathology is misfolded proteins and the accumulation of protein aggregates. In Alzheimer's disease, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein results in its dissociation from microtubules and the formation of pathogenic aggregates. An inverse relationship was demonstrated between Hsp90/Hsp70 levels and aggregated tau, suggesting that Hsp90 inhibitors that upregulate these chaperones could provide neuroprotection. We recently identified a small molecule novobiocin analogue, A4 that induces Hsp90 overexpression at low nanomolar concentrations and sought to test its neuroprotective properties. A4 protected neurons against Abeta-induced toxicity at low nanomolar concentrations that paralleled its ability to upregulate Hsp70 expression. A4 exhibited no cytotoxicity in neuronal cells at the highest concentration tested, 10 microM, thus providing a large therapeutic window for neuroprotection. In addition, A4 was transported across BMECs in vitro, suggesting the compound may permeate the blood-brain barrier in vivo. Taken together, these data establish A4, a C-terminal inhibitor of Hsp90, as a potent lead for the development of a novel class of compounds to treat Alzheimer's disease.
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ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative disease is one of the greatest health concerns today and with no effective treatment in sight, it is crucial that researchers find a safe and successful therapeutic. While neurofibrillary tangles are considered the primary tauopathy hallmark, more evidence continues to come to light to suggest that soluble, intermediate tau aggregates-tau oligomers-are the most toxic species in disease. These intermediate tau species may also be responsible for the spread of pathology, suggesting that oligomeric tau may be the best therapeutic target. Here we summarize results for the modulation of tau by molecular chaperones, small molecules and aggregation inhibitors, post-translational modifications, immunotherapy, other techniques, and future directions.ACS Chemical Neuroscience 07/2014; 5(9). DOI:10.1021/cn500143n · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the first most common neurodegenerative disease. Despite a large amount of research, the pathogenetic mechanism of AD has not yet been clarified. The two hallmarks of the pathology of AD are the extracellular senile plaques (SPs) of aggregated amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide and the accumulation of the intracellular microtubule-associated protein tau into fibrillar aggregates. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play a key role in preventing protein misfolding and aggregation, and Hsp90 can be viewed as a ubiquitous molecular chaperone potentially involved in AD pathogenesis. A role of Hsp90 regulates the activity of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), the master regulator of the heat shock response. In AD, Hsp90 inhibitors may redirect neuronal aggregate formation, and protect against protein toxicity by activation of HSF-1 and the subsequent induction of heat shock proteins, such as Hsp70. Therefore, we review here to further discuss the recent advances and challenges in targeting Hsp90 for AD therapy.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:796869. DOI:10.1155/2014/796869 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stress adaptation effect provides cell protection against ischemia induced apoptosis. Whether this mechanism prevents other types of cell death in stroke is not well studied. This is an important question for regenerative medicine to treat stroke since other types of cell death such as necrosis are also prominent in the stroke brain apart from apoptosis. We report here that treatment with 17-N-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG), an Hsp90 inhibitor, protected neural progenitor cells (NPCs) against oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) induced cell death in a dose dependent fashion. Cell death assays indicated that 17AAG not only ameliorated apoptosis, but also necrosis mediated by OGD. This NPC protection was confirmed by exposing cells to oxidative stress, a major stress signal prevalent in the stroke brain. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that 17AAG activated PI3K/Akt and MAPK cell protective pathways. More interestingly, these two pathways were activated in vivo by 17AAG and 17AAG treatment reduced infarct volume in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model. These data suggest that 17AAG protects cells against major cell death pathways and thus might be used as a pharmacological conditioning agent for regenerative medicine for stroke.Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12079-014-0247-5