Prognostic significance of lymph node metastasis and surgical margin status for distal cholangiocarcinoma.
ABSTRACT Prognostic indicators for patients with distal cholangiocarcinoma have not been confirmed because of its rarity. The aim of this study was to identify useful prognostic factors in patients undergoing surgical resection for distal cholangiocarcinoma.
Charts of 43 patients with distal cholangiocarcinoma who underwent surgical resection were retrospectively reviewed. Pancreatoduodenectomy was performed in 35 patients, and segmental bile duct resection in 8. Potential clinicopathological prognostic factors were examined by univariate and multivariate survival analysis.
Postoperative complications occurred after surgery in 19 patients (44%), but there was no mortality. Overall survival rates were 72%, 53%, and 44% for 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively (median survival time, 26.0 months). Univariate analysis found that older age, pathological pancreatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, perineural invasion, positive surgical margin, and TNM stages II and III were significant predictors of poor prognosis (P < 0.05). Furthermore, lymph node metastasis and positive surgical margin were found to be significant independent predictors of poor prognosis with a Cox proportional hazards regression model (P < 0.05).
These results suggest that lymph node metastasis and positive surgical margin as determined by surgical resection might be useful in predicting post-surgical outcome in patients with distal cholangiocarcinoma.
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ABSTRACT: The authors investigated the combined experience of a single institution in treating bile duct carcinoma during the modern era. Bile duct carcinomas are notoriously difficult to cure, with locoregional recurrence the rule, even after radical resection. Adjuvant efforts have included various radiation modalities, with limited success. Recently, charged-particle radiotherapy has also been used in these patients. The authors performed a retrospective chart analysis of 129 patients with bile duct adenocarcinomas treated between 1977 and 1987 through the University of California at San Francisco, including 22 patients treated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory with the charged particles helium and neon. The minimum follow-up was 5 years. Survival, outcome, and complication results were analyzed. Sixty-two patients were treated with surgery alone (S), 45 patients received conventional adjuvant x-ray radiotherapy (S + X), and 22 were treated with charged particles (S + CP). The median survival times were 6.5, 11, and 14 months, respectively, for the entire group, and 16, 16, and 23 months in patients treated with curative intent. There was a survival difference in patients undergoing total resection compared with debulking (p = 0.05) and minor resections (p = 0.0001). Patients with microscopic residual disease had increased median survival times when they were treated with adjuvant irradiation, most markedly after CP (p = 0.0005) but also with conventional X (p = 0.0109). Patients with gross residual disease had a less marked but still statistically significant extended survival (p = 0.05 for S + X and p = 0.0423 for S + CP) after irradiatio The mainstay of bile duct carcinoma management was maximal surgical resection in these patients. Postoperative radiotherapy gave patients with positive microscopic margins a significant survival advantage and may be of value in selected patients with gross disease.Annals of Surgery 04/1994; 219(3):267-74. · 6.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although extended hepatic resection has been shown to improve prognosis by increasing the surgical curability rate in hilar cholangiocarcinoma, high surgical morbidity and mortality rates have been reported in patients with obstructive jaundice. Postoperative liver failure after hepatic resection in patients with obstructive jaundice has been shown to depend on the volume of the resected hepatic mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of parenchyma-preserving hepatectomy in a surgical treatment for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Ninety-three resected patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma were included in this retrospective study. The resected patients were stratified into three groups: the extended hepatectomy (EXH) group (n = 66), the parenchyma-preserving hepatectomy (PPH) group (n = 14), and the local resection (LR) group (n = 13). The EXH group had undergone hepatectomy more extensive than hemihepatectomy, the PPH group had undergone hepatectomy less extensive than hemihepatectomy, and the LR group had undergone extrahepatic bile duct resection without hepatic resection. Surgical curability, defined by histologically confirmed negative surgical margins, surgical morbidity and mortality, and survival rates were compared among the three groups. The clinicopathologic factors were studied for prognostic value by univariate and multivariate analyses. Surgical curability of the PPH and EXH groups was better than that of the LR group. Fifty-four percent of patients in the LR group showed positive surgical margins at the hepatic stump of the bile duct, compared with 7% in the PPH group and 20% in the EXH groups (p < 0.01 for each comparison). Surgical morbidity was higher in the EXH group (48%) than in the LR group (8%) and the PPH group (14%) (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Postoperative hyperbilirubinemia occurred more frequently in the EXH group (29%) than in the LR and PPH groups (0% and 0%, respectively, p < 0.05 for each comparison). Survival rates after resection were significantly higher in patients who underwent hepatectomy, including PPH and EXH, than in patients who underwent LR, 29% versus 8% at 5 years, respectively (p < 0.05). But no significant difference in survival was found between the PPH and EXH groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that significant prognostic factors for survival were resected margin, lymph nodal status, and vascular resection. In conclusion, PPH could obtain a curative resection and improve the outcomes for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma that is localized at the hepatic duct confluence who do not require vascular resection. PPH might bring about a beneficial effect in highly selected patients according to extent of cancer and high-risk patients with liver dysfunction.Journal of the American College of Surgeons 01/2000; 189(6):575-83. · 4.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently, the Japanese Classification on Cancer of the Biliary Tract was revised and adopted the new comprehensive staging that is similar to UICC's TNM classification. We should be paying close attention to the significance of newly defined extensive factors of carcinomas on the long-term prognosis. The surgical outcome for 99 patients who underwent resected middle (Bm) and lower (Bi) bile duct carcinomas was reviewed in order to evaluate the suitability of the surgical procedures employed for their treatment, namely, standard pancreatoduodenectomy for Bi carcinoma and bile duct resection with D2 lymph node dissection for Bm carcinoma. The overall 5-year cumulative survival rate (operative death excluded) of Bm and Bi carcinoma patients was 37.4% and the 5-year survival rate of the patients in whom surgical curability (curA) was accomplished was 51.6%. Recently, a new prognostic factor, "t-category", which indicates the degree of pericholedochal neoplastic invasion was proposed in the 4th edition of the Japanese General Rules for Surgical and Pathological Studies on Cancer of the Biliary Tract. The 10-year survival rates by t-category were 49.1% (t1), 19.7% (t2), and 0% (t3 and t4) respectively. For Bm carcinoma, the patients undergoing bile duct resection under the condition of curA showed excellent prognoses. For Bi carcinoma, the patients fulfilling particular histological criteria, i.e., those concerning the histological depth of neoplastic invasion (m, fm, panc1a), duodenal involvement (du0, du1), vascular invasion (pv0), pericholedochal neoplastic invasion (t1), lymph node metastasis (n0), and comprehensive stage I, had good postoperative outcomes. Taking into account the fact that the metastatic rate of paragastric lymph nodes was 1.3%, the cases of panc0,1 should be operated by pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. The overall 5-year survival rates including far-advanced cases were 39.9% in Bm carcinoma patients and 36.9% in Bi carcinoma patients. However, these postoperative outcomes are far from satisfactory. Therefore, we concluded that pancreatoduodenectomy and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy with extended D3 lymphadenectomy combined with systematic multimodal therapy are indicated in each and every case of Bm and Bi carcinoma.Hepato-gastroenterology 01/2000; 47(33):650-7. · 0.77 Impact Factor