The Incidence and Natural History of Osteonecrosis in HIV-Infected Adults

Critical Care Medicine Department, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1662, USA.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 04/2007; 44(5):739-48. DOI: 10.1086/511683
Source: PubMed


Osteonecrosis is increasingly recognized as a debilitating complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but the natural history has not been well described. We previously documented a high prevalence (4.4%) of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-documented osteonecrosis of the hip in a cohort of 339 asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. The present study was designed to determine the incidence of newly diagnosed osteonecrosis in this cohort and to describe the natural history of osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients.
Asymptomatic HIV-infected patients with a previous hip MRI negative for osteonecrosis underwent follow-up MRI. Patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic osteonecrosis were enrolled in a natural history study, which included serial MRIs and a physiotherapy follow-up.
Two hundred thirty-nine patients underwent a second MRI a median of 23 months after the initial MRI. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head was diagnosed in 3 patients (incidence, 0.65 cases per 100 person-years). During the period of January 1999 through April 2006, symptomatic hip osteonecrosis developed in 13 clinic patients (incidence, 0.26 cases per 100 person-years). Among 22 patients enrolled with symptomatic hip osteonecrosis, 18 had bilateral involvement of the femoral heads, and 7 had osteonecrosis involving other bones. Two (11%) of 18 asymptomatic patients and 13 (59%) of 22 symptomatic patients underwent total hip replacement. The percentage of involvement of the weight-bearing surface of the femoral head and the rate of progression to total hip replacement was significantly greater (P<.001) in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic patients.
HIV-infected patients are at approximately 100-fold greater risk of developing osteonecrosis than the general population. Disease progression is slower in asymptomatic patients than in symptomatic patients. Given the high frequency of total hip replacement in symptomatic patients, studies to assess preventive and treatment strategies are essential.

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    • "In that study, osteonecrosis was diagnosed in 4.4% of HIV-infected patients while not a single case was found in the non-infected group. In addition, they found that the incidence was 100 times higher in infected individuals than in ordinary people.3) According to recent reports, the prevalence has increased sharply in HIV-infected patients while they have remained constant in those not infected.4,5) "
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    ABSTRACT: The number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is increasing constantly, and it is well known that there is a significantly high prevalence of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in HIV-infected patients. Therefore, it is important to develop methods that can ensure the safety of both the patients and medical personnel who participate in surgery on HIV-infected patients. Recently, the authors performed 8 procedures on 5 HIV-infected patients. This paper reports our experience. This study examined the medical records and radiological studies of 5 HIV-infected patients who had undergone surgery around the hip joint from January, 2005 to September, 2007. During the procedures, their mean age was 38.6 years (range, 23 to 53 years) and all were male. Four of them were under an anti-retroviral therapy program. The reasons for the operations were nonunion of the femoral shaft after trauma in two patients and osteonecrosis of both femoral heads in three. One autologous bone grafting, one screw fixation with autologous bone grafting, five total hip replacement arthroplasties, and one multiple drilling were performed. All procedures were carried out according to the guidelines of HIV infection control made by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The mean follow-up period was 16.6 months (range, 4 to 37 months). The preoperative CD4 count was 130 in one patient, and 200 to 499 in the other 4. The viral loads were 15100 and 420 in two patients, and negative in the other 3. Bony union was achieved in those who had undergone autologous bone grafting. There were significant improvements in both the Harris Hip Score and functional state in those who had total hip replacement arthroplasty. There were no immediate postoperative complications, such as infection. During the follow-up period, one patient died from esophageal variceal bleeding. However, no surgery-related complications were observed in the other 4 patients. There were no significant complications in HIV-infected patients after the operations around the hip joint when their preoperative immunity was optimal. In addition, the safety of medical personnel can be assured when the operation is performed in line with the guidelines of HIV infection control.
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    • "21 36 3 (14) – Morse et al./2007 [57] "
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    ABSTRACT: Core decompression procedures have been used in osteonecrosis of the femoral head to attempt to delay the joint destruction that may necessitate hip arthroplasty. The efficacy of core decompressions has been variable with many variations of technique described. To determine whether the efficacy of this procedure has improved during the last 15 years using modern techniques, we compared recently reported radiographic and clinical success rates to results of surgeries performed before 1992. Additionally, we evaluated the outcomes of our cohort of 52 patients (79 hips) who were treated with multiple small-diameter drillings. There was a decrease in the proportion of patients undergoing additional surgeries and an increase in radiographic success when comparing pre-1992 results to patients treated in the last 15 years. However, there were fewer Stage III hips in the more recent reports, suggesting that patient selection was an important reason for this improvement. The results of the small-diameter drilling cohort were similar to other recent reports. Patients who had small lesions and were Ficat Stage I had the best results with 79% showing no radiographic progression. Our study confirms core decompression is a safe and effective procedure for treating early stage femoral head osteonecrosis.
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