Time Trends in Reported Diagnoses of Childhood Neuropsychiatric Disorders

North Atlantic Neuro-Epidemiology Alliances at Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark.
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.73). 03/2007; 161(2):193-8. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.161.2.193
Source: PubMed


To examine trends in autism (autism spectrum disorder and childhood autism) in the context of 3 additional childhood neuropsychiatric disorders: hyperkinetic disorder, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Population-based cohort study.
Children were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Relevant outcomes were obtained via linkage with the Danish National Psychiatric Register, which included reported diagnoses through 2004 by psychiatrists using diagnostic criteria from the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision.
All children born in Denmark from 1990 through 1999, a total of 669 995 children.
Cumulative incidence proportion by age, stratified by year of birth, for each disorder.
Statistically significant increases were found in cumulative incidence across specific birth years for autism spectrum disorder, childhood autism, hyperkinetic disorder, and Tourette syndrome. No significant change in cumulative incidence was observed for obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Recent increases in reported autism diagnoses might not be unique among childhood neuropsychiatric disorders and might be part of a more widespread epidemiologic phenomenon. The reasons for the observed common pattern of change in reported cumulative incidence could not be determined in this study, but the data underscore the growing awareness of and demand for services for children with neurodevelopmental disorders in general.

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Available from: Hjördís Osk Atladóttir, Apr 12, 2014
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    • "The 1997–2008 National Health Interview Surveys in the United States reported that the prevalence of ADHD and ASD increased, respectively, from 5.69% to 7.57% and 0.19% to 0.74% over 12 years [9]. A Danish birth cohort study followed all children born from 1990 through 1999 to the end of 2004 and reported that the cumulative incidence of ADHD and ASD across specific birth years showed statistically significant increases [4]. The temporal concordance of the increased prevalence of atopy, ADHD, and ASD has inspired many scientists in recent years to investigate the possible etiological association between these 3 clinically distinct diseases. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Previous studies have found a temporal concordance in the increased prevalence of atopic diathesis/atopic diseases, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) worldwide. But, the temporal association among these 3 distinct diseases is unknown. Method 14,812 atopic subjects diagnosed with any atopic disease (asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, or allergic conjunctivitis) before the age of 3 (atopic cohort) and 6944 non-atopic subjects with no lifetime atopic disease (non-atopic cohort), born between 1997 and 2000, were enrolled and followed to December 31 2010 to identify the development of ADHD and ASD. Results The presence of any atopic disease in early childhood increased the risk of developing ADHD (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.97) and ASD (HR: 3.40) in later life. Greater numbers of atopic comorbidities (4 comorbidities: ADHD: HR: 2.53; ASD: HR: 4.29) were significantly related to a greater risk of developing ADHD and ASD. Discussion Atopic diathesis in early childhood elevated the risk of developing ADHD and ASD in later life, with the dose-dependent relationship of more atopic comorbidities with a greater likelihood of ADHD and ASD.
    Journal of Psychosomatic Research 10/2014; 77(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2014.06.006 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    • "Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and represents a significant public health problem. Several works [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] have illustrated a significant increase in the rates of ADHD during recent decades. Thirty years ago, reported prevalence of ADHD among schoolchildren lay between 1% and 3%, whilst recent estimates range between 3 and 10%. "
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    ABSTRACT: This work proposes the use of miniature wireless inertial sensors as an objective tool for the diagnosis of ADHD. The sensors, consisting of both accelerometers and gyroscopes to measure linear and rotational movement, respectively, are used to characterize the motion of subjects in the setting of a psychiatric consultancy. A support vector machine is used to classify a group of subjects as either ADHD or non-ADHD and a classification accuracy of greater than 95% has been achieved. Separate analyses of the motion data recorded during various activities throughout the visit to the psychiatric consultancy show that motion recorded during a continuous performance test (a forced concentration task) provides a better classification performance than that recorded during "free time".
    Medical Engineering & Physics 03/2014; 36(7). DOI:10.1016/j.medengphy.2014.02.023 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    • "There was one article investigating time trends in the incidence of Tourette syndrome in a population-based cohort [30]. In this study, a statistically significant increase was found in the cumulative incidence across specific birth years for TS from 1990 to 1995. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tourette Syndrome (TS) appears to be an inherited disorder, although genetic abnormalities have been identified in less than 1 % of patients, and the mode of inheritance is uncertain. Many studies have investigated environmental factors that might contribute to the onset and severity of tics and associated comorbidities such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). A systematic review and qualitative analysis were performed to provide a broad view of the association between pre- and perinatal factors and TS. The Medline, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched using terms specific to Tourette's syndrome and keywords such as "pregnancy", "prenatal", "perinatal", "birth" and "neonatal". Studies were limited to studies on human subjects published in English or French through October 2012. 22 studies were included. Studies were of limited methodological quality, with most samples derived from specialty clinics, and most exposures ascertained retrospectively. The majority of the results for demographic factors of parents, including age, education, socioeconomic status, and marital status, revealed no significant association with the onset of TS, or the presence of comorbidity. Many factors were reported to be significantly associated with the onset of TS, the presence of comorbidity and symptom severity, but the most consistently reported factors were maternal smoking and low birth weight. There are few studies evaluating the relationship between pre and perinatal events and TS, and existing studies have major limitations, including the use of clinic rather than epidemiologically derived samples, retrospective data collection on pre and perinatal events and multiple hypothesis testing without appropriate statistical correction. The mechanism by which prenatal and perinatal adversities could lead to TS onset or symptom severity is unknown, but may be related to changes in the dopaminergic system as a result of early brain injury.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 01/2014; 14(1):53. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-14-53 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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