Serum lipids and glucose control - The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study

Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, 393 E Walnut St, Pasadena, CA 91188, USA.
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.25). 02/2007; 161(2):159-65. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.161.2.159
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To assess the relationship of serum lipid concentrations with glucose control in youth with diabetes mellitus.
Cross-sectional analyses of data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study.
Multicenter study of youth with diabetes onset at younger than 20 years. PATIENTS/ PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen hundred seventy-three SEARCH participants aged 10 years or older with hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride measured at the SEARCH study examination.
Hemoglobin A(1c).
Lipid concentrations.
There were significant trends of higher levels of TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and non-HDL-C (but not HDL-C) with higher hemoglobin A(1c) concentrations for both diabetes types. The slopes of TC increase were 7.8 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) per unit increase in hemoglobin A(1c) for type 1 and 8.1 mg/dL (0.21 mmol/L) for type 2. Levels of TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and non-HDL-C were all significantly higher (all P values <.001) in type 2 than in type 1 diabetes (mean differences in milligrams per deciliter [millimoles per liter], +13.6 [+0.35] for TC; +8.3 [+0.22] for LDL-C; +66.3 [+0.75] for triglyceride; +25.5 [+0.66] for non-HDL-C). Levels of HDL-C were lower in youth with type 2 diabetes (mean difference, -11.9 mg/dL [-0.31 mmol/L]). Among those with type 1 diabetes in poor glycemic control, 35%, 27%, and 12% had high concentrations of TC (>or=200 mg/dL [5.17 mmol/L]), LDL-C (>or=130 mg/dL [3.36 mmol/L]), and triglyceride (>or=200 mg/dL [2.26 mmol/L]), respectively. In youth with type 2 diabetes in poor glycemic control, percentages with high levels of TC, LDL-C, and triglycerides were 65%, 43%, and 40%, respectively.
Glycemic control and lipid levels are independently associated in youth with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the UK, the care of young people with diabetes has focused predominantly on type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, young-onset T2D has become increasingly prevalent. At present, it is unclear which type of diabetes represents the more adverse phenotype to develop complications. This study aims to determine the complication burden and its predictive factors in young-onset T2D compared with T1D. A cross-sectional study using a hospital diabetes register to identify patients with young-onset T2D and T1D. Young-onset T2D was defined as age of diagnosis below 40 years. The T1D cohort with a similar age of diagnosis was used as a comparator. Data from the last clinic visit was used for analysis. Clinical characteristics and diabetes complications were evaluated at diabetes durations <10, 10-20, and >20 years. Predictive factors for diabetes complications (age, sex, glycated hemoglobin, creatinine, diabetes duration, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and body mass index >25) were determined by logistic regression analysis. Data were collected on 1287 patients, of which 760 and 527 had T1D and T2D, respectively. In all diabetes durations, the T2D cohort had an older age of onset (p<0.0005) with a higher prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia (all p<0.0005) while glycemic control was similar in both groups. Cardiovascular disease (p<0.005) and neuropathy (p<0.05) were more prevalent in the young-onset T2D cohort in all diabetes durations. There was no difference in retinopathy. Cardiovascular disease was predominantly due to ischemic heart disease. Stroke and peripheral vascular disease became significantly higher in T2D after 20 years duration. After controlling for traditional risk factors, young-onset T2D was an independent predictor for cardiovascular disease (p<0.005) and neuropathy (p<0.05) but not for retinopathy. Young-onset T2D is a more aggressive phenotype than T1D to develop diabetes complications, particularly for ischemic heart disease and neuropathy.
    02/2015; 3(1). DOI:10.1136/bmjdrc-2014-000044
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dyslipidemia and high blood pressure in diabetic patients increase the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in youth is a relatively novel condition facing paediatric health care providers. Few experimental trials exist to guide clinical management in this population. Supporting and prescribing modifiable lifestyle behaviours is cornerstone in the management of T2D in adults. Clinical trials in obese adolescents suggest that intensive lifestyle interventions that include both dietary changes and increased physical activity elicit clinically meaningful reductions in weight and improve cardiovascular risk profiles. Observational studies in youth with T2D suggest that better diet quality and increased physical activity are associated with better metabolic control; however, the limited experimental data available does not support these observations. Trials evaluating lifestyle monotherapy for the treatment of hyperglycaemia in youth with T2D do not exist, and the only study evaluating combined lifestyle and pharmacologic therapy did not show additional benefit over pharmacologic treatment with metformin alone. Physiological and psychosocial differences between youth and adults with T2D likely contribute to the differences in the effectiveness of lifestyle therapy for improving glycaemic control. The current review describes these topics in detail and provides recommendations for paediatric health care providers for the promotion of lifestyle therapy for the management of hyperglycaemia and cardiovascular risk factors for youth with T2DM.
    Current Diabetes Reports 01/2015; 15(1):568. DOI:10.1007/s11892-014-0568-z · 3.38 Impact Factor