Article

A randomized clinical trial of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), fluoxetine, and pill placebo in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: treatment effects and long-term maintenance.

Trauma Center, Justice Resource Institute, Brookline, MA 02446, USA.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.14). 02/2007; 68(1):37-46. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.v68n0105
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The relative short-term efficacy and long-term benefits of pharmacologic versus psychotherapeutic interventions have not been studied for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study compared the efficacy of a selective serotonin reup-take inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, with a psychotherapeutic treatment, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), and pill placebo and measured maintenance of treatment gains at 6-month follow-up.
Eighty-eight PTSD subjects diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned to EMDR, fluoxetine, or pill placebo. They received 8 weeks of treatment and were assessed by blind raters posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, DSM-IV version, and the secondary outcome measure was the Beck Depression Inventory-II. The study ran from July 2000 through July 2003.
The psychotherapy intervention was more successful than pharmacotherapy in achieving sustained reductions in PTSD and depression symptoms, but this benefit accrued primarily for adult-onset trauma survivors. At 6-month follow-up, 75.0% of adult-onset versus 33.3% of child-onset trauma subjects receiving EMDR achieved asymptomatic end-state functioning compared with none in the fluoxetine group. For most childhood-onset trauma patients, neither treatment produced complete symptom remission.
This study supports the efficacy of brief EMDR treatment to produce substantial and sustained reduction of PTSD and depression in most victims of adult-onset trauma. It suggests a role for SSRIs as a reliable first-line intervention to achieve moderate symptom relief for adult victims of childhood-onset trauma. Future research should assess the impact of lengthier intervention, combination treatments, and treatment sequencing on the resolution of PTSD in adults with childhood-onset trauma.

Full-text

Available from: Joseph Spinazzola, Jul 18, 2014
2 Followers
 · 
120 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Narcissistic personality disorder and narcissistic trait disorder are associated with selfish behaviors and lack of empathy toward others. Clients with either of these initial presentations in therapy show a self-centered profile and lack of empathy or concern about the suffering they may cause in other people, but this is only part of the picture. Sometimes the lack of empathy and selfishness is only a defense. To fully understand this problem, it is also necessary to be aware of underlying self-definition issues that drive the behavioral manifestations of narcissism. As in any psychological problem, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment needs an understanding of how early experiences lead to future symptoms. Understanding the pathways from early experiences to narcissistic features (including covert presentations) is essential for an adequate case conceptualization as well as comprehending the defensive mental structures that impede accessing the core adverse experiences underlying the symptoms.
    Journal of EMDR Practice and Research 02/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1891/1933-3196.9.1.46
  • Source
    Michael Hase, Ute Mirian Balmaceda, Adrian Hase, Maria Lehnung, Visal Tumani, Christian Huchzermeier, Arne Hofmann
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Depression is a severe mental disorder that challenges mental health systems worldwide as the success rates of all established treatments are limited. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is a scientifically acknowledged psychotherapeutic treatment for PTSD. Given the recent research indicating that trauma and other adverse life experiences can be the basis of depression, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of EMDR therapy with this disorder. Method: In this study, we recruited a group of 16 patients with depressive episodes in an inpatient setting. These 16 patients were treated with EMDR therapy by reprocessing of memories related to stressful life events in addition to treatment as usual (TAU). They were compared to a group of 16 controls matched regarding diagnosis, degree of depression , sex, age and time of admission to hospital, which were receiving TAU only. Results: Sixty-eight percent of the patients in the EMDR group showed full remission at end of treatment. The EMDR group showed a greater reduction in depressive symptoms as measured by the SCL-90-R depression subscale. This difference was significant even when adjusted for duration of treatment. In a follow-up period of more than 1 year the EMDR group reported less problems related to depression and less relapses than the control group. Conclusions: EMDR therapy shows promise as an effective treatment for depressive disorders. Larger controlled studies are necessary to replicate our findings. Introduction Given its frequency and severity, depression is a severe challenge to mental health systems worldwide, and this challenge is increasing. The World Health Organization (2012) has named depression as one of the most frequent and disabling diagnoses in the world, affecting at least 350 million people worldwide, almost one million of whom commit suicide each year (Murray and Lopez 1996; Greden 2001). Psychotherapeutic interventions have a long tradition in the treatment of depression. Several reports show that psychotherapeutic interventions can be helpful, not only in light and moderate depression but also in cases of severe chronic depression (Nemeroff et al. 2003). However, relapse rates are still high, even in patients who respond to the different forms of psycho-therapeutic treatment. In fact, 1 year after discontinuation of psychotherapy for acute depression, the relapse rate was 29%, and increased to 54% after 2 years (Vittengl et al. 2007). Chronic and acute stressors are well-established contributors to depression and can even trigger the onset of depressive episodes (Heim and Nemeroff 2001; McFarlane 2010). First episodes of depression are often more closely
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Effective first-line treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well established, but their generalizability to child abuse (CA)-related Complex PTSD is largely unknown. A quantitative review of the literature was performed, identifying seven studies, with treatments specifically targeting CA-related PTSD or Complex PTSD, which were meta-analyzed, including variables such as effect size, drop-out, recovery, and improvement rates. Only six studies with one or more cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) treatment conditions and one with a present centered therapy condition could be meta-analyzed. RESULTS indicate that CA-related PTSD patients profit with large effect sizes and modest recovery and improvement rates. Treatments which include exposure showed greater effect sizes especially in completers' analyses, although no differential results were found in recovery and improvement rates. However, results in the subgroup of CA-related Complex PTSD studies were least favorable. Within the Complex PTSD subgroup, no superior effect size was found for exposure, and affect management resulted in more favorable recovery and improvement rates and less drop-out, as compared to exposure, especially in intention-to-treat analyses. Limited evidence suggests that predominantly CBT treatments are effective, but do not suffice to achieve satisfactory end states, especially in Complex PTSD populations. Moreover, we propose that future research should focus on direct comparisons between types of treatment for Complex PTSD patients, thereby increasing generalizability of results.
    European Journal of Psychotraumatology 10/2014; 5:23613. DOI:10.3402/ejpt.v5.23613 · 2.40 Impact Factor