Resident as teacher: Educating the educators

Department of Internal Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA.
Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine A Journal of Translational and Personalized Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.62). 01/2007; 73(8):1165-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02587.x
Source: PubMed


Medical students receive their clinical training from various sources: from residents during informal teaching sessions and from attending physicians during more formalized rounds. As a result of the increasing pressures of clinical medicine, efforts need to be focused on the identification and training of the next generation of clinical educators.
We have created a pilot medical education elective for residents which pairs training in teaching skills with formal teaching opportunities during protected blocks of elective time, an opportunity which is rare in most residency programs and may provide for more effective teaching skill acquisition.
Feedback from the participants demonstrates widespread acceptance of the pilot program.
We believe this new model would provide motivated residents with the skills and the protected time to teach, and help create a future generation of attendings better able to teach.

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    • "A–Quantitative questions provided along with Likert scale; however, qualitative questions not included. Weissman et al, 61 2006 UC 1 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Teaching residents how to teach is a critical part of resident education because residents are often the major teachers of medical students. The importance of formal residents-as-teachers (RAT) curricula has been emphasized throughout the literature, yet not all residency programs have such a curriculum in place. Objective: The purpose of our study was to (1) review the medical education literature for established RAT curricula, (2) assess published curricula's reproducibility, (3) evaluate the type of outcomes achieved using the Kirkpatrick model of evaluation, and (4) identify curricula that training programs could feasibly adopt. Methods: We performed a literature review using PubMed, Medline, Scopus, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Embase. Key search words included residents, residents as teachers, teaching, internship and residency, and curriculum. In addition, a search of MedEdPORTAL was performed using the same key terms. Articles were evaluated based on the reproducibility of curricula and the assessment tools. Evaluation of educational outcomes was performed using the Kirkpatrick model. Results: Thirty-nine articles were deemed appropriate for review. Interventions and evaluation techniques varied greatly. Only 1 article from the literature was deemed to have both curricula and assessments that would be fully reproducible by other programs. Conclusions: A literature review on RAT curricula found few articles that would be easily reproduced for residency programs that want to start or improve their own RAT curricula. It also demonstrated the difficulty and lack of rigorous outcome measurements for most curricula.
    06/2014; 6(2):237-248. DOI:10.4300/JGME-D-13-00308.1
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    • "Formal resident-as-teacher curricula are becoming more common, but residency program directors continue to express the need for more types of training programs that improve teaching skills (Morrison et al. 2001). Resident-as-teacher programs described in the medical literature have included special electives for interested residents (Weissman et al. 2006), clinician educator tracks (Heflin et al. 2009), and retreats focused on teaching skills (Litzelman et al. 1994, Roberts et al. 1994). Teaching modalities include lectures, small-group discussions, case history teaching formats, role-plays, simulations, debriefing sessions, and the reviewing of films and videotapes of teaching performance. "
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    ABSTRACT: Residents play a significant role in teaching, but formal training, feedback, and evaluation are needed. Our aims were to assess resident teaching skills in the resident-as-teacher program, quantify correlations of faculty evaluations with resident self-evaluations, compare resident-as-teacher evaluations with clinical evaluations, and evaluate the resident-as-teacher program. The resident-as-teacher training program is a simulated, videotaped teaching encounter with a trained medical student and standardized teaching evaluation tool. Evaluations from the resident-as-teacher training program were compared to evaluations of resident teaching done by faculty, residents, and medical students from the clinical setting. Faculty evaluation of resident teaching skills in the resident-as-teacher program showed a mean total score of 4.5 ± 0.5 with statistically significant correlations between faculty assessment and resident self-evaluations (r = 0.47; p < 0.001). However, resident self-evaluation of teaching skill was lower than faculty evaluation (mean difference: 0.4; 95% CI 0.3-0.6). When compared to the clinical setting, resident-as-teacher evaluations were significantly correlated with faculty and resident evaluations, but not medical student evaluations. Evaluations from both the resident-as-teacher program and the clinical setting improved with duration of residency. The resident-as-teacher program provides a method to train, give feedback, and evaluate resident teaching.
    Medical Teacher 01/2012; 34(1):e52-7. DOI:10.3109/0142159X.2012.638012 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    • "It seems that pharmacy educational programs should more focus on enhancing students’ ethical attitude. In agreement with this hypothesis the successful incorporation of a multi-course sequential learning curriculum in nursing and dental students education was determined which increased their ethical attitude (12, 16). "
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    ABSTRACT: Alterations in pharmacy practice from prescription dispensing to more patient-centered relationship intensifies the necessity of clinical decision-making. Pharmacists’ knowledge as well as ethical reasoning affects their clinical decision-making. Unfortunately in Iran pharmacy ethics did not develop along with medical ethics and special considerations are of major importance. The study was designed to evaluate pharmacists’ attitude toward some principles of bioethics. A cross-sectional survey was performed on a sample of Iranian pharmacists attended in continuous education programs in 2010. Based on the pharmacists’ attitude toward common ethical problems, 9 Likert-type scale scenarios were designed. A thousand pharmacists were surveyed and 505 questionnaires were filled. For the whole questionnaire the strongly disagree answer was the most ethical answer. On a scale from 1–5 on which 5=strongly disagree, the total score of pharmacists ethical attitude was 17.69 ± 3.57. For easier analysis we considered the score of 1 for agree and strongly agree answers, score of 2 for neutral answers and score of 3 for disagree and strongly disagree answers. The total score in confidentiality for all participants was 4.15 ± 1.45 out of 9, in autonomy 6.25 ± 1.85 out of 9, in non-maleficence 5.14 ± 1.17 out of 6 and in justice was 2.27 ± 0.89 out of 3, however there was no significant difference between men and women in the total score and the score of each theme. The older participants (> 40 years) significantly had lower total score (P< 0.05) as well as the score of each theme (P< 0.05), except for non-maleficence. The work experience showed impact on the pharmacists’ attitude toward autonomy and the participants with more than 5 years work experience significantly obtained lower score in this theme. Compiling ethical guidelines and improving pharmacy ethics curriculum is highly critical to provide the best pharmaceutical care and to make clinical decisions in critical situations. Therefore further quantitative and qualitative investigations into finding pitfalls and challenges in this issue are highly recommended.
    Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine 05/2011; 4:5.
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