Caffeinated beverage intake and the risk of heart disease mortality in the elderly: a prospective analysis

Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, New York, NY 11210, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.92). 02/2007; 85(2):392-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Motivated by the possibility that caffeine could ameliorate the effect of postprandial hypotension on a high risk of coronary events and mortality in aging, we hypothesized that caffeinated beverage consumption decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in the elderly.
The objective of the study was to use prospective cohort study data to test whether the consumption of caffeinated beverages exhibits this protective effect.
Cox regression analyses were conducted for 426 CVD deaths that occurred during an 8.8-y follow-up in the prospective first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. The analysis involved 6594 participants aged 32-86 y with no history of CVD at baseline.
Participants aged >or=65 y with higher caffeinated beverage intake exhibited lower relative risk of CVD and heart disease mortality than did participants with lower caffeinated beverage intake. It was a dose-response protective effect: the relative risk (95% CI) for heart disease mortality was 1.00 (referent), 0.77 (0.54, 1.10), 0.68 (0.49, 0.94), and 0.47 (0.32, 0.69) for <0.5, 0.5-2, 2-4, and >or=4 servings/d, respectively (P for trend = 0.003). A similar protective effect was found for caffeine intake in mg/d. The protective effective was found only in participants who were not severely hypertensive. No significant protective effect was found in participants aged <65 y or in cerebrovascular disease mortality for those aged >or=65 y.
Habitual intake of caffeinated beverages provided protection against the risk of heart disease mortality among elderly participants in this prospective epidemiologic analysis.

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    • "It affects the brain and results in a relaxed mood, decreased fatigue, increased focus, and faster, and clear thoughts. Moderate consumption of caffeine, help in reducing the risks of several chronic diseases like Diabetes, Parkinson's diseases, liver disease, and colon cancer, as well as improve immune function [9]. However, excess consumption of CAF cause trembling, nausea, nervousness, and mutational effects such as inhibition of DNA [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Electrochemical methods have been widely used for the determination of electroactive compounds due to their simplicity, sensitivity, stability, and low cost. A carbon paste electrode was modified with anthraquinone. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was employed to study the properties of the modified electrode toward the oxidation of caffeine (CAF). Compared to the unmodified electrode, the AQMCPE showed excellent catalytic activity for the oxidation of caffeine. AQMCPE was used to determine CAF in drug samples electrochemically. SWV was used to plot the calibration curve and there was a good linear relationship between anodic peak current and CAF concentration in the range 2.0 × 10−6 − 8.0 × 10–4 M, with the correlation coefficient of 0.998 and a detection limit of 1.43 × 10−7 M. The application of the modified electrode for the determination of CAF in pharmaceutical formulation showed good recovery with reproducible results.
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    • "Detailed process of study selection is showed in Fig. 1. 33 potentially relevant articles were retrieved for more detailed assessment. Among them, seven articles [29,37–42] excluded since updated results published [11] [17] [18] [20] [26] [30]; six studies were excluded due to only two categories or no coffee categories [43] [44], a very high loss rate [45] or results from sub-group analyses [28] [30] [31] when completed results published [20] [23] [24]. Twenty articles consisting of 21 independent cohorts, which had met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, were included in the overall effect estimation [8–27]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A large amount of cohort studies addressed coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooling effects. We searched for all published English articles indexed in MEDLINE or PubMed from January 1966 to January 2008. Twenty-one independent prospective cohort studies, which tested CHD risk by coffee consumption, were identified. A general variance-based method was used to pool the relative risks (RR). 15,599 cases from 407,806 participants were included in pooling the overall effects. As compared to the light coffee consumption (<1 cup/d in US or <or=2 cups/d in Europe), under the random-effects model, the pooled CHD RRs (95% CI) for all studies combined were 0.96 (0.87-1.06), 1.04 (0.92-1.17) and 1.07 (0.87-1.32) for the moderate (1-3 or 3-4 cups/d), heavy (4-5 or 5-6 cups/d) and very heavy (>or=6 or >or=7 cups/d) categories of coffee consumption (all p>0.05); Moderate coffee consumption showed significantly lower CHD RR (95% CI) of 0.82 (0.73-0.92) (p<0.001) in women, and of 0.87 (0.80-0.86) (p=0.001) in men and women followed <or=10 years. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that coffee consumption increases the long-term risk of coronary heart disease. Habitual moderate coffee drinking was associated with a lower risk of CHD in women.
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    ABSTRACT: The problem of overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States and globally, and the high prevalence is due in part to the recidivism associated with weight loss treatment. Approximately one-third of lost weight is often regained in the first year after treatment and, at times, continues. Because a plethora of comorbid diseases are associated with obesity, in particular, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, clinicians and researchers have attempted to find useful strategies for maintaining weight loss. This review presents the findings from 42 randomized clinical trials of weight loss maintenance from 1984 through 2007 using interventions that include (1) the Internet, (2) strategies after a very low calorie diet, (3) pharmacotherapy, (4) behavioral strategies, (5) physical activity, and (6) alternative strategies. The results of the reviewed trials revealed that treatment with orlistat or sibutramine combined with dietary modification, caffeine or protein supplementation, consuming a diet lower in fat, adherence to physical activity routines, prolonged contact with participants, problem-solving therapy, and the alternative treatment of acupressure were efficacious in reducing weight regain after weight loss treatment. The limitations of some studies may reduce the robustness of their findings, and future studies are necessary to replicate and support these results so that individuals are able to maintain weight loss and retain the health benefits associated with a lower weight.
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