Altered skeletal muscle fiber composition and size precede whole-body insulin resistance in young men with low birth weight.
ABSTRACT Low birth weight (LBW), a surrogate marker of an adverse fetal milieu, is linked to muscle insulin resistance, impaired insulin-stimulated glycolysis, and future risk of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle mass, fiber composition, and capillary density are important determinants of muscle function and metabolism, and alterations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether an adverse fetal environment (LBW) induces permanent changes in skeletal muscle morphology, which may contribute to the dysmetabolic phenotype associated with LBW.
Vastus lateralis muscle was obtained by percutaneous biopsy from 20 healthy 19-yr-old men with birth weights at 10th percentile or lower for gestational age (LBW) and 20 normal birth weight controls, matched for body fat, physical fitness, and whole-body glucose disposal. Myofibrillar ATPase staining was used to classify muscle fibers as type I, IIa, and IIx (formerly type IIb), and double immunostaining was performed to stain capillaries (LBW, n=8; normal birth weight, n=12).
LBW was associated with increased proportion of type IIx fibers (+66%; P=0.03), at the expense of decreased type IIa fibers (-22%; P=0.003). No significant change was observed in proportion of type I fibers (+16%; P=0.11). In addition, mean area of type IIa fibers was increased (+29%; P=0.01) and tended to be increased for type I fibers as well (+17%; P=0.08). Capillary density was not significantly different between groups.
Alterations in fiber composition and size may contribute to development of type 2 diabetes in individuals with LBW.
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ABSTRACT: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased future risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have previously shown that young LBW men have reduced skeletal muscle expression of PI3K p85alpha regulatory subunit and p110beta catalytic subunit, PKCzeta and GLUT4 in the fasting state. The aim of this study was to determine whether insulin activation of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signalling pathways is altered in skeletal muscle of young adult men with LBW. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained from 20 healthy 19-yr old men with BW< or = 10th percentile for gestational age (LBW) and 20 normal birth weight controls (NBW), matched for physical fitness and whole-body glucose disposal, prior to (fasting state) and following a 4-hr hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (insulin stimulated state). Expression and phosphorylation of selected proteins was determined by Western blotting. Insulin stimulated expression of aPKCzeta (p<0.001) and Akt1 (p<0.001) was decreased in muscle of LBW men when compared to insulin stimulated controls. LBW was associated with increased insulin stimulated levels of IRS1 (p<0.05), PI3K p85alpha (p<0.001) and p110beta (p<0.05) subunits, while there was no significant change in these proteins in insulin stimulated control muscle. In addition LBW had reduced insulin stimulated phospho-Akt (Ser 473) (p<0.01), indicative of reduced Akt signalling. Insulin stimulated expression/phosphorylation of all the MAPK proteins studied [p38 MAPK, phospho-p38 MAPK (Thr180/Tyr182), phospho-ERK (Thr 202/Tyr204), JNK1, JNK2 and phospho-JNK (Thr 183/Tyr185)] was not different between groups. We conclude that altered insulin activation of the PI3K/Akt but not the MAPK pathway precedes and may contribute to development of whole-body insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in men with LBW.PLoS ONE 01/2008; 3(11):e3738. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Birth weight in relation to leisure time physical activity in adolescence and adulthood: meta-analysis of results from 13 nordic cohorts.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prenatal life exposures, potentially manifested as altered birth size, may influence the later risk of major chronic diseases through direct biologic effects on disease processes, but also by modifying adult behaviors such as physical activity that may influence later disease risk. We investigated the association between birth weight and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in 43,482 adolescents and adults from 13 Nordic cohorts. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on categorical estimates from cohort-, age-, sex- and birth weight specific analyses. Birth weight showed a reverse U-shaped association with later LTPA; within the range of normal weight the association was negligible but weights below and above this range were associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA. Compared with the reference category (3.26-3.75 kg), the birth weight categories of 1.26-1.75, 1.76-2.25, 2.26-2.75, and 4.76-5.25 kg, had odds ratios of 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.94), 0.72 (0.59, 0.88), 0.89 (0.79, 0.99), and 0.65 (0.50, 0.86), respectively. The shape and strength of the birth weight-LTPA association was virtually independent of sex, age, gestational age, educational level, concurrent body mass index, and smoking. The association between birth weight and undertaking LTPA is very weak within the normal birth weight range, but both low and high birth weights are associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA, which hence may be a mediator between prenatal influences and later disease risk.PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(12):e8192. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of muscle mass and strength with age. Although a number of adult influences are recognised, there remains considerable unexplained variation in muscle mass and strength between older individuals. This has focused attention on influences operating earlier in life. Our objective for this study was to identify life course influences on muscle mass and strength in an established birth cohort and develop methodology for collection of muscle tissue suitable to investigate underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. One hundred and five men from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS), born between 1931 and 1939 who have historical records of birth weight and weight at one year took part in the Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study (HSS). Each participant consented for detailed characterisation of muscle mass, muscle function and aerobic capacity. In addition, a muscle biopsy of the vastus lateralis using a Weil-Blakesley conchotome was performed. Data on muscle mass, function and aerobic capacity was collected on all 105 participants. Muscle biopsy was successfully carried out in 102 participants with high rates of acceptability. No adverse incidents occurred during the study. The novel approach of combining epidemiological and basic science characterisation of muscle in a well established birth cohort will allow the investigation of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying life course influences on sarcopenia.BMC Geriatrics 01/2010; 10:43. · 2.34 Impact Factor