The p21Waf1 pathway is involved in blocking leukemogenesis by the t(8;21) fusion protein AML1-ETO.
ABSTRACT The 8;21 translocation is a major contributor to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) of the M2 classification occurring in approximately 40% of these cases. Multiple mouse models using this fusion protein demonstrate that AML1-ETO requires secondary mutagenic events to promote leukemogenesis. Here, we show that the negative cell cycle regulator p21(WAF1) gene is up-regulated by AML1-ETO at the protein, RNA, and promoter levels. Retroviral transduction and hematopoietic cell transplantation experiments with p21(WAF1)-deficient cells show that AML1-ETO is able to promote leukemogenesis in the absence of p21(WAF1). Thus, loss of p21(WAF1) facilitates AML1-ETO-induced leukemogenesis, suggesting that mutagenic events in the p21(WAF1) pathway to bypass the growth inhibitory effect from AML1-ETO-induced p21(WAF1) expression can be a significant factor in AML1-ETO-associated acute myeloid leukemia.
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ABSTRACT: The chimeric fusion protein, AML1-ETO, generated by translocation of t(8;21), abnormally recruits histone deacetylase (HDAC) to the promoters of AML1 target genes, resulting in transcriptional repression of the target genes and development of t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia. Abnormal expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, especially p21, is considered a possible mechanism of the arrested maturation and differentiation seen in leukemia cells. A new generation of HDAC inhibitors is becoming an increasing focus of attention for their ability to induce differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells and to block the cell cycle. Our previous research had demonstrated that valproic acid induces G0/G1 arrest of Kasumi-1 cells in t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we further confirmed that valproic acid inhibits the growth of Kasumi-1 cells in a murine xenograft tumor model, and that this occurs via upregulation of histone acetylation in the p21 promoter region, enhancement of p21 expression, suppression of phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, blocking of transcription activated by E2F, and induction of G0/G1 arrest.OncoTargets and Therapy 01/2013; 6:733-40. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic development is orchestrated by gene regulatory networks that progressively induce lineage-specific transcriptional programs. To guarantee the appropriate level of complexity, flexibility, and robustness, these networks rely on transcriptional and post-transcriptional circuits involving both transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). The focus of this review is on RUNX1 (AML1), a master hematopoietic transcription factor which is at the center of miRNA circuits necessary for both embryonic and post-natal hematopoiesis. Interference with components of these circuits can perturb RUNX1-controlled coding and non-coding transcriptional programs in leukemia.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(1):1566-88. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The t(8;21) translocation fuses the DNA-binding domain of the hematopoietic master regulator RUNX1 to the ETO protein. The resultant RUNX1/ETO fusion protein is a leukemia-initiating transcription factor that interferes with RUNX1 function. The result of this interference is a block in differentiation and, finally, the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To obtain insights into RUNX1/ETO-dependant alterations of the epigenetic landscape, we measured genome-wide RUNX1- and RUNX1/ETO-bound regions in t(8;21) cells and assessed to what extent the effects of RUNX1/ETO on the epigenome depend on its continued expression in established leukemic cells. To this end, we determined dynamic alterations of histone acetylation, RNA Polymerase II binding and RUNX1 occupancy in the presence or absence of RUNX1/ETO using a knockdown approach. Combined global assessments of chromatin accessibility and kinetic gene expression data show that RUNX1/ETO controls the expression of important regulators of hematopoietic differentiation and self-renewal. We show that selective removal of RUNX1/ETO leads to a widespread reversal of epigenetic reprogramming and a genome-wide redistribution of RUNX1 binding, resulting in the inhibition of leukemic proliferation and self-renewal, and the induction of differentiation. This demonstrates that RUNX1/ETO represents a pivotal therapeutic target in AML.Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; RUNX1/ETO; epigenetic regulation; chromatin; integrated analysis of high-throughput dataLeukemia 02/2012; 26(8):1829-1841. · 9.38 Impact Factor