The p21(Waf1) pathway is involved in blocking leukemogenesis by the t(8;21) fusion protein AML1-ETO
ABSTRACT The 8;21 translocation is a major contributor to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) of the M2 classification occurring in approximately 40% of these cases. Multiple mouse models using this fusion protein demonstrate that AML1-ETO requires secondary mutagenic events to promote leukemogenesis. Here, we show that the negative cell cycle regulator p21(WAF1) gene is up-regulated by AML1-ETO at the protein, RNA, and promoter levels. Retroviral transduction and hematopoietic cell transplantation experiments with p21(WAF1)-deficient cells show that AML1-ETO is able to promote leukemogenesis in the absence of p21(WAF1). Thus, loss of p21(WAF1) facilitates AML1-ETO-induced leukemogenesis, suggesting that mutagenic events in the p21(WAF1) pathway to bypass the growth inhibitory effect from AML1-ETO-induced p21(WAF1) expression can be a significant factor in AML1-ETO-associated acute myeloid leukemia.
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ABSTRACT: DNA damage repair mechanisms are vital to maintain genomic integrity. Mutations in genes involved in the DNA damage response (DDR) can increase the risk of developing cancer. In recent years, a variety of polymorphisms in DDR genes have been associated with increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or of disease relapse. Moreover, a growing body of literature has indicated that epigenetic silencing of DDR genes could contribute to the leukemogenic process. In addition, a variety of AML oncogenes have been shown to induce replication and oxidative stress leading to accumulation of DNA damage, which affects the balance between proliferation and differentiation. Conversely, upregulation of DDR genes can provide AML cells with escape mechanisms to the DDR anticancer barrier and induce chemotherapy resistance. The current review summarizes the DDR pathways in the context of AML and describes how aberrant DNA damage response can affect AML pathogenesis, disease progression, and resistance to standard chemotherapy, and how defects in DDR pathways may provide a new avenue for personalized therapeutic strategies in AML.Chromosoma 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00412-014-0482-9 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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