Article

Efficient syntheses of a series of trehalose dimycolate (TDM)/trehalose dicorynomycolate (TDCM) analogues and their interleukin-6 level enhancement activity in mice sera.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima 770-8514, Japan.
The Journal of Organic Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.56). 04/2007; 72(5):1627-33. DOI: 10.1021/jo062018j
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We found an IL-6 level-enhancing compound during our synthetic study of trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (1, TDM, formerly called cord factor) analogues. TDM is a glycolipid distributed in the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and shows significant antitumor activity based on an immunoadjuvant activity. However, due to its significant toxicity, TDM is not yet applicable for practical use. In 1993, Datta and Takayama reported the purification of trehalose-6,6'-dicorynomycolate (2c, TDCM) from Corynebacterium spp. We have previously reported the synthesis of four diastereomeric TDCMs and showed that the synthetic (2R,3R,2'R,3'R)-TDCM (2c, hereafter abbreviated RRRR-TDCM-C14) is identical to natural TDCM; we also demonstrated that 2c and SSSS-TDCM-C14 (3c) showed significant antitumor activity as well as inhibitory activity in experimental lung metastasis based on the immunoadjuvant activity. Furthermore, we found that the significant lethal toxicity in mice by TDM (1) was no longer observed with the shorter-chain analogues of TDCMs. Therefore, we have elucidated that the 2,3-antistereochemistry (RR or SS) of the fatty acid residue is promising for biological activities. The chain length of the fatty acid residue should also be important for the biological activity, and thus, we designed a general synthetic procedure for trehalose diesters with 2,3-antistereochemistry and a series of chain lengths by using Noyori's asymmetric reduction of beta,beta-ketoesters followed by antiselective alkylation according to Frater to give beta,beta-hydroxy alcohols as the key steps. Thus, we prepared trehalose diesters (TDCM) 2a-d, 3a-d, and 4a-d as well as monoesters (TMCM) 5a-d and 6a-d. Immunological activities of TDCMs and TMCMs were evaluated by determining IL-6 level enhancement in mouse serum, and we found that RRRR-TDCM-C14 (2c) and RRSS-TDCM-C14 (4c) showed significant IL-6 level enhancement activities.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
94 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The application of cationic liposomes as vaccine delivery systems and adjuvants has been investigated extensively over the last few decades. However, cationic liposomes are, in general, not sufficiently immunostimulatory, which is why the combination of liposomes with immunostimulating ligands has arisen as a strategy in the development of novel adjuvant systems. Within the last 5 years, two novel adjuvant systems based on cationic liposomes incorporating Toll-like receptor or non-Toll-like receptor immunostimulating ligands have progressed from preclinical testing in smaller animal species to clinical testing in humans. The immune responses that these clinical candidates induce are primarily of the Th1 type for which there is a profound unmet need. Furthermore, a number of new cationic liposome-forming surfactants with notable immunostimulatory properties have been discovered. In this article we review the recent progress on the application of cationic liposomes as vaccine delivery systems/adjuvants.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 04/2011; 10(4):513-21. · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A variety of trehalose glycolipids have been isolated from natural sources, and several of these glycolipids exhibit important biological properties. These molecules also represent challenging synthetic targets due to their highly amphiphilic character, their large number of functional groups and additional chiral centres. This review highlights some of the recent advances made in the synthesis of trehalose glycolipids, and their associated biological activities.
    Carbohydrate research 03/2012; 356:25-36. · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The C22 and C26 trehalose monoesters, each containing a single acyl chain, were synthesised in good overall yields and found to activate macrophages in a Mincle-dependent manner. The activities of the monoesters paralleled those of their diester counterparts, and both mono- and diesters could activate the immune response in the absence of priming. This is the first time that trehalose monoesters have been found to activate macrophages, and these studies thus provide an important framework for the rational design of other Mincle agonists.
    ChemBioChem 01/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor