Recall Bias for Seven-Day Recall Measurement of Alcohol Consumption Among Emergency Department Patients: Implications for Case-Crossover Designs*
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to estimate biases in recalling alcohol consumption over short periods.
Patients (n = 918) attending the surgical ward of the emergency department (ED) of the Lausanne University Hospital in Switzerland participated in a brief intervention study. Inclusion criteria were an average alcohol consumption exceeding 14 drinks per week for men or 7 drinks per week for women, or the consumption at least once monthly of 5 or more drinks for men or 4 or more drinks for women. Alcohol consumption was measured by means of a retrospective 7-day diary.
Recalled alcohol consumption decreased with the length of the recall period. Consumption was 0.9 drinks lower for a recall of 7 days compared with a recall of 1 day. Biases were apparent for every day of the week, but the bias was highest for consumption to be recalled for Fridays and Saturdays. Recall bias was significant only for sporadic drinkers (those drinking less than 4 days a week) but not for regular drinkers (those drinking 5 or more days a week).
Recall bias is a threat for survey measurements of alcohol consumption in general and particularly for research designs in which the bias is differentially distributed across cases and controls. This bias is true for case-crossover designs in which the recalled consumption of an individual for a period farther away from the interview (e.g., past week) serves as the control for the acute intake of the same individual (e.g., in the 6-hour period preceding ED attendance). Because risk estimates of case-crossover designs focus particularly on sporadic drinkers, the finding of recall biases being higher among sporadic drinkers increases the chance of spurious findings in such designs.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: To estimate the global lifetime prevalence rate of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and to investigate moderators of the prevalence rate. Methods: A meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis was performed using studies gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar among others. Included were 187 studies that provided original data on 271 lifetime prevalence rates. Studies were coded for publication year, region, sample type, age range, sample size, assessment method, and sampling method. Heterogeneity was assessed by the I2 index and the Q–statistic. Random effect-size modeling was used. Subgroup comparisons were conducted using Bonferroni correction. Results: The global lifetime prevalence rate obtained was 3.3% (95 CI, 2.8-3.8, I2 = 99.7, P < 0.001]. The prevalence rate for males, 6.4% (95% CI, 5.3-7.7, I2 = 99.2, P < 0.001), was significantly higher (Qbet = 100.1, P < 0.001) than the rate for females, 1.6% (95% CI, 1.3- 1.9, I2 = 96.8, P < 0.001). Sample type (athletes), assessment method (interviews only and interviews and questionnaires), sampling method, and male sample percentage were significant predictors of AAS use prevalence. There was no indication of publication bias. Conclusion: Non-medical AAS use is a serious widespread public health problem.Annals of Epidemiology 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.01.009 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patient reporting of symptoms in a questionnaire with a 7-day recall period was expected to differ from symptom reporting in a 7-day symptom diary on the basis of cognitive theory of memory processes and several studies of symptoms and health behaviors. A total of 101 adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) completed a daily diary of items measuring symptoms and impacts of COPD for 7 days, and on the seventh day they completed a questionnaire of the same items with a 7-day recall period. The analysis examined concordance of 7-day recall with summary descriptors of the daily responses, examined the magnitude and covariates (patient characteristics and response patterns) of the difference between 7-day recall and mean of daily responses, and compared the discriminant ability and ability to detect change of 7-day recall and mean of daily responses. A 7-day recall was moderately concordant with the mean and maximum of daily responses and was 0.34 to 0.50 SDs higher than the mean of daily responses. Only the weekly report itself was a covariate of the difference. The discriminant ability and ability to detect change were equivalent. In measuring the weeklong experience of COPD symptoms and impacts on groups of patients, the 7-day recall scores were higher than the daily diary scores, but equivalent in detecting change over time.Value in Health 05/2012; 15(3):466-74. DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2011.12.005 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Memory deficits lead to distortion when long recall periods are used to assess alcohol consumption. We used the recently developed Internet-based cell phone-optimised assessment technique (ICAT) to describe the drinking patterns of young people over the course of Thursday, Friday and Saturday evenings and to compare the amounts reported during the drinking sessions in question with those in the retrospective baseline assessment. Using hyperlinks in text messages sent to their cell phones over five weeks, 183 young adults in French-speaking Switzerland completed a total of 8646 questionnaires at 8 pm, 9 pm, 10 pm, 11 pm, midnight and 11 am the next morning over 1441 evenings. Participants consumed an average of three drinks on Thursday evenings, four on Friday evenings and five and a half on Saturday evenings. The multi-group and multi-level latent growth curves showed that while the difference was minimal at the beginning of the evening, consumption decreased over the course of the evening on Thursdays, remained about stable on Fridays and increased on Saturdays between both genders. The amounts indicated in the evening assessments were up to twice as high as those indicated retrospectively. Using participants' cell phones, ICAT appears to be a convenient method for collecting alcohol-related data throughout the evening. Due to the significant impact of evening drinking patterns on the total amount consumed and related consequences, it is important to prevent the average increase of drinking that is likely to occur on Saturday evenings among young people.Drug and alcohol dependence 02/2012; 124(3):319-24. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.02.001 · 3.28 Impact Factor