How does arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis regulate root hydraulic properties and plasma membrane aquaporins in Phaseolus vulgaris under drought, cold or salinity stresses?
ABSTRACT Here, we evaluated how the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis regulates root hydraulic properties and root plasma membrane aquaporins (PIP) under different stresses sharing a common osmotic component. Phaseolus vulgaris plants were inoculated or not with the AM fungus Glomus intraradices, and subjected to drought, cold or salinity. Stress effects on root hydraulic conductance (L), PIP gene expression and protein abundance were evaluated. Under control conditions, L in AM plants was about half that in nonAM plants. However, L was decreased as a result of the three stresses in nonAM plants, while it was almost unchanged in AM plants. At the same time, PIP2 protein abundance and phosphorylation state presented the same trend as L. Finally, the expression of each PIP gene responded differently to each stress and was dependent on the AM fungal presence. Differential expression of the PIP genes studied under each stress depending on the AM fungal presence may indicate a specific function and regulation by the AM symbiosis of each gene under the specific conditions of each stress tested.
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ABSTRACT: Aquaporins facilitate the uptake of soil water and mediate the regulation of root hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) in response to a large variety of environmental stresses. Here, we use Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants to dissect the effects of salt on both Lp(r) and aquaporin expression and investigate possible molecular and cellular mechanisms of aquaporin regulation in plant roots under stress. Treatment of plants by 100 mm NaCl was perceived as an osmotic stimulus and induced a rapid (half-time, 45 min) and significant (70%) decrease in Lp(r), which was maintained for at least 24 h. Macroarray experiments with gene-specific tags were performed to investigate the expression of all 35 genes of the Arabidopsis aquaporin family. Transcripts from 20 individual aquaporin genes, most of which encoded members of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) and tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) subfamilies, were detected in nontreated roots. All PIP and TIP aquaporin transcripts with a strong expression signal showed a 60% to 75% decrease in their abundance between 2 and 4 h following exposure to salt. The use of antipeptide antibodies that cross-reacted with isoforms of specific aquaporin subclasses revealed that the abundance of PIP1s decreased by 40% as early as 30 min after salt exposure, whereas PIP2 and TIP1 homologs showed a 20% to 40% decrease in abundance after 6 h of treatment. Expression in transgenic plants of aquaporins fused to the green fluorescent protein revealed that the subcellular localization of TIP2;1 and PIP1 and PIP2 homologs was unchanged after 45 min of exposure to salt, whereas a TIP1;1-green fluorescent protein fusion was relocalized into intracellular spherical structures tentatively identified as intravacuolar invaginations. The appearance of intracellular structures containing PIP1 and PIP2 homologs was occasionally observed after 2 h of salt treatment. In conclusion, this work shows that exposure of roots to salt induces changes in aquaporin expression at multiple levels. These changes include a coordinated transcriptional down-regulation and subcellular relocalization of both PIPs and TIPs. These mechanisms may act in concert to regulate root water transport, mostly in the long term (> or =6 h).Plant physiology 10/2005; 139(2):790-805. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transcript regulation in response to high salinity was investigated for salt-tolerant rice (var Pokkali) with microarrays including 1728 cDNAs from libraries of salt-stressed roots. NaCl at 150 mM reduced photosynthesis to one tenth of the prestress value within minutes. Hybridizations of RNA to microarray slides probed for changes in transcripts from 15 min to 1 week after salt shock. Beginning 15 min after the shock, Pokkali showed upregulation of transcripts. Approximately 10% of the transcripts in Pokkali were significantly upregulated or downregulated within 1 hr of salt stress. The initial differences between control and stressed plants continued for hours but became less pronounced as the plants adapted over time. The interpretation of an adaptive process was supported by the similar analysis of salinity-sensitive rice (var IR29), in which the immediate response exhibited by Pokkali was delayed and later resulted in downregulation of transcription and death. The upregulated functions observed with Pokkali at different time points during stress adaptation changed over time. Increased protein synthesis and protein turnover were observed at early time points, followed by the induction of known stress-responsive transcripts within hours, and the induction of transcripts for defense-related functions later. After 1 week, the nature of upregulated transcripts (e.g., aquaporins) indicated recovery.The Plant Cell 05/2001; 13(4):889-905. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus macrocarpum and salinity on growth of Sesbania aegyptiaca and S. grandiflora. In the salt-stressed soil, mycorrhizal root colonisation and sporulation was significantly higher in AM-inoculated than in uninoculated plants. Mycorrhizal seedlings had significantly higher root and shoot dry biomass production than non-mycorrhizal seedlings grown in saline soil. The content of chlorophyll was greater in the leaves of mycorrhiza-inoculated as compared to uninoculated seedlings. The number of nodules was significantly higher in mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal seedling tissue had significantly increased concentrations of P, N and Mg but lower Na concentration than non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Under salinity stress conditions both Sesbania sp. showed a high degree of dependence on mycorrhizae, increasing with the age of the plants. The reduction in Na uptake together with a concomitant increase in P, N and Mg absorption and high chlorophyll content in mycorrhizal plants may be important salt-alleviating mechanisms for plants growing in saline soil.Mycorrhiza 11/2004; 14(5):307-12. · 2.96 Impact Factor