L-thyroxine augmentation of serotonergic antidepressants in female patients with refractory depression.
ABSTRACT Triiodothyronine (T3) augmentation in treatment-resistant depression had been successfully performed with both tricyclic as well as with SSRI antidepressants. In this paper, the efficacy of addition of moderate dose of l-thyroxine (T4) to serotonergic antidepressants in refractory depression was evaluated.
The study included 17 female patients, aged 30-60 years, with treatment-resistant depressive episode in the course of unipolar or bipolar mood disorder. All patients had no history of thyroid axis disturbances and had T3, T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) values within the normal range. The antidepressants preceding thyroxine augmentation were serotonergic antidepressants (clomipramine - 11 patients, paroxetine - 5 patients, fluoxetine - 1 patient). l-thyroxine was added in the dose of 100 microm daily for 4 weeks.
After four weeks of l-thyroxine augmentation, the remission, assessed as 7 or less points on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was obtained in eleven patients (64.7%). Five other patients (29.5%) had responded (reduction>50% on HDRS) and one patient did not show an improvement. The efficacy of augmentation did not show any correlation with laboratory tests' results performed before (T3, T4, TSH and TSH stimulation test) as well as with any clinical factors (age, diagnosis, duration of illness, duration of episode).
The addition of moderate dose of l-thyroxine may be a successful augmentation strategy in female depressed patients in whom the effect of serotonergic antidepressant had been unsatisfactory. It may be efficient despite of the lack of disturbances of thyroid axis in such patients.
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ABSTRACT: Interactions between brain, psyche and thyroid are known from historical descriptions of thyroidectomy (Kocher) and hyperthyroidism. However, their importance is often underscored in clinical routine. Thyroid hormone deficiency during pregnancy may result in irreversible mental retardation and requires levothyroxine substitution. TSH screening after delivery must identify newborns with congenital hypothyroidism: An early levothyroxine substitution and long term therapy control are required. Hypothyroidism and depression have many symptoms in common. Cognitive deficits and depressive states are often found in overt hypothyroidism, psychotic derangements are rare. Levothyroxine improves hypothyroid symptoms and mental performance, mood and motivation. Psychic symptoms of hyperthyroidism include agitation, irritability, mood disturbances, hyperactivity, anxiousness and even panic attacks. Manic and delusional states are rare. In geriatric patients hyperthyroidism may be oligosymptomatic. In psychiatric patients more frequent but unspecific disturbances of thyroid laboratory values being reversible without specific therapy have to be distinguished from rather rare but causative organic thyroid diseases with therapeutic consequences. Some psychiatric drugs influence thyroid laboratory results. Hypothyroidism in depressive patients is a negative prognostic parameter and requires therapy. Psychiatric symptoms associated with hypothyroidism are usually reversible under levothyroxine within 4-8 weeks. The standard for hypothyroidism is mono-levothyroxine therapy.Nuklearmedizin 02/2008; 47(6):225-34. DOI:10.3413/nukmed-0191 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A total of 62 patients with major depressive disorder were analyzed in the study. Patients were evaluated for 11 weeks in an open label design to investigate the differential effects of reboxetine, sertraline and venlafaxine on thyroid hormones. Serum thyrotrophin (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and free (f)T4 levels were measured before and after treatment. All groups showed significant improvement in HAM-D scores. TSH level significantly reduced and T4 level significantly increased in the reboxetine group, however TSH level significantly increased and T4 level significantly reduced in the sertraline group. Percent changes of TSH (p=0.007) and T4 (p=0.001) were significantly different between the reboxetine and sertraline groups. In the sertraline group, baseline TSH levels were correlated with response to treatment as determined by the change in HAM-D scores (p=0.03, r=0.648). There was a significant association between the percent changes in TSH values and the reduction in HAM-D scores in the reboxetine group (p=0.03, r=-0.434). In the whole study group, female patients had lower values of basal T4 compared with men (p=0.043), however percent changes of T4 did not differ between genders. In the treatment-responders significant increase in the reboxetine group and significant decrease in the sertraline group regarding the T4 values were found. We observed that various antidepressants had different effects on thyroid hormone levels and this could be attributed to the different mechanisms of actions of these antidepressants.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 06/2008; 32(4):955-61. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2007.12.029 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3), is used as a supplement to antidepressant treatment of major depression, to accelerate and enhance response and as an augmenter in patients who have not responded. While there is support from controlled trials and meta-analyses for the use of T3 in conjunction with tricyclic antidepressants, the evidence base for supplementation of specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with T3 is more limited. We reviewed the available literature on T3 supplementation of SSRIs including open-label studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five RCTs were identified. Three were enhancement studies in which T3 was administered concurrently with the antidepressant from the start of treatment and two were augmentation studies in which T3 was added to the antidepressant treatment of patients who had not responded. Three open augmentation studies were identified. The RCTs were too disparate in methodology to allow a meta-analysis to be performed. The enhancement studies are inconclusive in that one showed strongly positive effects of T3, one showed no effect and one showed a trend. The open augmentation studies supported an effect of T3 in SSRI non-responsive patients with some support from a large RCT; a smaller, underpowered RCT did not show efficacy. T3 was well tolerated in most of the studies and adverse effects do not seem to be an impediment to clinical use. Some of the studies identified clinical and thyroid function correlates of response that require further investigation. Further research is needed before it can be definitively established whether T3 is an effective supplement to SSRIs in patients with MDD. The appropriate timing of T3 supplementation needs to be explored and also the dose and length of treatment.The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2008; 11(5):685-99. DOI:10.1017/S1461145707008206 · 5.26 Impact Factor