Based on prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression on the vasculature of solid tumors, we performed a phase I trial of antibody J591, targeting the extracellular domain of PSMA, in patients with advanced solid tumor malignancies. This was a proof-of-principle evaluation of PSMA as a potential neovascular target. The primary end points were targeting,toxicity, maximum-tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics (PK), and human antihuman antibody (HAHA) response.
Patients had advanced solid tumors previously shown to express PSMA on the neovasculature. They received 111Indium (111ln)-J591 for scintigraphy and PK, followed 2 weeks later by J591 with a reduced amount of 111In for additional PK measurements. J591 dose levels were 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg. The protocol was amended for six weekly administrations of unchelated J591. Patients with a response or stable disease were eligible for re-treatment. Immunohistochemistry assessed PSMA expression in tumor tissues.
Twenty-seven patients received monoclonal antibody (mAb) J591. Treatment was well tolerated. Twenty (74%) of 27 patients had at least one area of known metastatic disease targeted by 111In-J591, with positive imaging seen in patients with kidney, bladder, lung, breast, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers, and melanoma. Seven of 10 patient specimens available for immunohistochemical assessment of PSMA expression in tumor-associated vasculature demonstrated PSMA staining. No HAHA response was seen. Three patients of 27 with stable disease received re-treatment.
Acceptable toxicity and excellent targeting of known sites of metastases were demonstrated in patients with multiple solid tumor types, highlighting a potential role for the anti-PSMA antibody J591 as a vascular-targeting agent.
"It has also been shown that PSMA is involved in tumor angiogenesis of many solid tumors, and it is expressed in the endothelial lumen in tumors. Normal vascular endothelium in non-cancerous tissue is PSMA negative (92, 93). PSMA displays several features that qualify it as a suitable target for immunotherapy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in men and the second most common cause of cancer-related death in men. In recent years, novel therapeutic options for PCa have been developed and studied extensively in clinical trials. Sipuleucel-T is the first cell-based immunotherapeutic vaccine for treatment of cancer. This vaccine consists of autologous mononuclear cells stimulated and loaded with an immunostimulatory fusion protein containing the prostate tumor antigen prostate acid posphatase. The choice of antigen might be key for the efficiency of cell-based immunotherapy. Depending on the treatment strategy, target antigens should be immunogenic, abundantly expressed by tumor cells, and preferably functionally important for the tumor to prevent loss of antigen expression. Autoimmune responses have been reported against several antigens expressed in the prostate, indicating that PCa is a suitable target for immunotherapy. In this review, we will discuss PCa antigens that exhibit immunogenic features and/or have been targeted in immunotherapeutic settings with promising results, and we highlight the hurdles and opportunities for cancer immunotherapy.
Frontiers in Immunology 05/2014; 5:191. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00191
"Such agents are presently in multiple Phase II clinical trials for prostate tumors and other cancers (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01056029; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01695044) [25,26]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary and secondary brain cancers are highly treatment resistant, and their marked angiogenesis attracts interest as a potential therapeutic target. Recent observations reveal that the microvascular endothelium of primary high-grade gliomas expresses prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA). Breast cancers express PSMA and they frequently form secondary brain tumors. Hence we report here our pilot study addressing the feasibility of PSMA targeting in brain and metastatic breast tumors, by examining PSMA levels in all glioma grades (19 patients) and in breast cancer brain metastases (5 patients).
Tumor specimens were acquired from archival material and normal brain tissues from autopsies. Tissue were stained and probed for PSMA, and the expression levels imaged and quantified using automated hardware and software. PSMA staining intensities of glioma subtypes, breast tumors, and breast tumor brain metastases were compared statistically versus normals.
Normal brain microvessels (4 autopsies) did not stain for PSMA, while a small proportion (<5%) of healthy neurons stained, and were surrounded by an intact blood brain barrier. Tumor microvessels of the highly angiogenic grade IV gliomas showed intense PSMA staining which varied between patients and was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than normal brain. Grade I gliomas showed moderate vessel staining, while grade II and III gliomas had no vessel staining, but a few (<2%) of the tumor cells stained. Both primary breast cancer tissues and the associated brain metastases exhibited vascular PSMA staining, although the intensity of staining was generally less for the metastatic lesions.
Our results align with and extend previous data showing PSMA expression in blood vessels of gliomas and breast cancer brain metastases. These results provide a rationale for more comprehensive studies to explore PSMA targeted agents for treating secondary brain tumors with PSMA expressing vasculature. Moreover, given that PSMA participates in angiogenesis, cell signaling, tumor survival, and invasion, characterizing its expression may help guide later investigations of the poorly understood process of low grade glioma progression to glioblastoma.
Cancer Cell International 03/2014; 14(1):26. DOI:10.1186/1475-2867-14-26 · 2.77 Impact Factor
"This deregulation may result in production of prostate specific markers such as the secreted protease prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and the cell surface prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) . A transmembrane glycoprotein expressed in the human prostate parenchyma, from where it was first cloned and named prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)  has gained increased attention in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of PC . PSMA is a metallopeptidase belonging to the peptidase family M28  and has apparent molecular masses of 84-100 kDa  with a unique three-part structure: a short cytoplasmic amino terminus that interacts with an actin filament, a single membrane-spanning domain and a large extracellular domain . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to relate the co-expression of prostate-associated antigens, PSMA and PSA, with the degree of vascularization in normal and pathologic (hyperplasia and cancer) prostate tissues to elucidate their possible role in tumor progression.
The study was carried out in 6 normal, 44 benign prostatic hyperplastic and 39 cancerous human prostates. Immunohistochemical analysis were performed using the monoclonal antibody CD34 to determine the angiogenic activity, and the monoclonal antibodies 3E6 and ER-PR8 to assess PSMA and PSA expression, respectively.
In our study we found that in normal prostate tissue, PSMA and PSA were equally expressed (3.7 ± 0.18 and 3.07 ± 0.11). A significant difference in their expression was see in hyperplastic and neoplastic prostates tissues (16.14 ± 0.17 and 30.72 ± 0.85, respectively) for PSMA and (34.39 ± 0.53 and 17.85 ± 1.21, respectively) for PSA. Study of prostate tumor profiles showed that the profile (PSA+, PSMA-) expression levels decreased between normal prostate, benign prostatic tissue and primary prostate cancer. In the other hand, the profile (PSA-, PSMA+) expression levels increased from normal to prostate tumor tissues. PSMA overexpression was associated with high intratumoral angiogenesis activity. By contrast, high PSA expression was associated with low angiogenesis activity.
These data suggest that these markers are regulated differentially and the difference in their expression showed a correlation with malignant transformation. With regard to the duality PSMA-PSA, this implies the significance of their investigation together in normal and pathologic prostate tissues.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 12/2010; 29(1):171. DOI:10.1186/1756-9966-29-171 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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