A mechanism for cell-cycle regulation of MAP kinase signaling in a yeast differentiation pathway.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 31.96). 03/2007; 128(3):519-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.032
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Yeast cells arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle upon exposure to mating pheromones. As cells commit to a new cycle, G1 CDK activity (Cln/CDK) inhibits signaling through the mating MAPK cascade. Here we show that the target of this inhibition is Ste5, the MAPK cascade scaffold protein. Cln/CDK disrupts Ste5 membrane localization by phosphorylating a cluster of sites that flank a small, basic, membrane-binding motif in Ste5. Effective inhibition of Ste5 signaling requires multiple phosphorylation sites and a substantial accumulation of negative charge, which suggests that Ste5 acts as a sensor for high G1 CDK activity. Thus, Ste5 is an integration point for both external and internal signals. When Ste5 cannot be phosphorylated, pheromone triggers an aberrant arrest of cells outside G1 either in the presence or absence of the CDK-inhibitor protein Far1. These findings define a mechanism and physiological benefit of restricting antiproliferative signaling to G1.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We explore a framework to model the dose response of allosteric multisite phosphorylation proteins using a single auxiliary variable. This reduction can closely replicate the steady state behavior of detailed multisite systems such as the Monod-Wyman-Changeux allosteric model or rule-based models. Optimal ultrasensitivity is obtained when the activation of an allosteric protein by its individual sites is concerted and redundant. The reduction makes this framework useful for modeling and analyzing biochemical systems in practical applications, where several multisite proteins may interact simultaneously. As an application we analyze a newly discovered checkpoint signaling pathway in budding yeast, which has been proposed to measure cell growth by monitoring signals generated at sites of plasma membrane growth. We show that the known components of this pathway can form a robust hysteretic switch. In particular, this system incorporates a signal proportional to bud growth or size, a mechanism to read the signal, and an all-or-none response triggered only when the signal reaches a threshold indicating that sufficient growth has occurred.
    PLoS Computational Biology 02/2014; 10(2):e1003443. · 4.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cellular replicative capacity is a therapeutic target for regenerative medicine as well as cancer treatment. The mechanism of replicative senescence and cell immortality is still unclear. We investigated the diauxic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and demonstrate that the replicative capacity revealed by yeast growth curve can be understood by using the dynamical property of the molecular-cellular network regulating S. cerevisiae. The endogenous network we proposed has a limit cycle when pheromone signaling is disabled, consistent with the exponential growth phase with an infinite replicative capacity. In the post-diauxic phase, the cooperative effect of the pheromone activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway with the cell cycle leads to a fixed point attractor instead of the limit cycle. The cells stop dividing after several generations counting from the beginning of the post-diauxic growth. By tuning MAPK pathway, S. cerevisiae therefore programs the number of offsprings it replicates.
    Journal of Theoretical Biology 01/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cell polarity is critical for the form and function of many cell types. During polarity establishment, cells define a cortical "front" that behaves differently from the rest of the cortex. The front accumulates high levels of the active form of a polarity-determining Rho-family GTPase (Cdc42, Rac, or Rop) that then orients cytoskeletal elements through various effectors to generate the polarized morphology appropriate to the particular cell type [1, 2]. GTPase accumulation is thought to involve positive feedback, such that active GTPase promotes further delivery and/or activation of more GTPase in its vicinity [3]. Recent studies suggest that once a front forms, the concentration of polarity factors at the front can increase and decrease periodically, first clustering the factors at the cortex and then dispersing them back to the cytoplasm [4-7]. Such oscillatory behavior implies the presence of negative feedback in the polarity circuit [8], but the mechanism of negative feedback was not known. Here we show that, in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the catalytic activity of the Cdc42-directed GEF is inhibited by Cdc42-stimulated effector kinases, thus providing negative feedback. We further show that replacing the GEF with a phosphosite mutant GEF abolishes oscillations and leads to the accumulation of excess GTP-Cdc42 and other polarity factors at the front. These findings reveal a mechanism for negative feedback and suggest that the function of negative feedback via GEF inhibition is to buffer the level of Cdc42 at the polarity site.
    Current biology: CB 03/2014; · 10.99 Impact Factor


Available from