Synergistic therapeutic potential of dexamethasone and L-arginine in lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock.
ABSTRACT Dexamethasone (DEX) is demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory properties and known to induce hemodynamic improvement in sepsis and septic shock. L-arginine (L-arg), a semi-essential amino acid, depending on its metabolic pathway, becomes very essential in stress situations such as heatstroke, burns, sepsis, trauma, and wound healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic therapeutic effect of DEX and L-arg in rescuing the mice from experimental septic shock induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The experiments were designed to delineate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the increased therapeutic benefit of the combination therapy (CT) in LPS-induced septic shock.
Acute endotoxemia was induced in Swiss male mice by i.p. injection of LPS (18 mg kg(-1)) at 0 h. LPS-treated mice were divided into four groups. The first group (DEX group) received DEX (2 mg kg(-1)) i.p. at +2 h of LPS. The second group (L-arg group) received L-arg i.p. at a dose of 120 mg/kg at +6 h of LPS injection. The third group (CT group) received DEX (2 mg kg(-1)) at +2 h LPS followed by L-arg at +6 h of LPS injection. The fourth group received saline in place of L-arg or DEX (LPS group). A sham group was also included, where normal mice received saline in place of LPS or L-arg or DEX. At +6 h, mice from sham group, LPS group, and DEX group were sacrificed at +24 h. Mice from sham group, DEX group, L-arg group, and CT group were sacrificed to examine various parameters associated with LPS endotoxemia.
The CT with DEX followed by L-arg significantly increased the survival of mice injected with a lethal dose of LPS. Monotherapy with either DEX or L-arg given at the same dose and time did not increase the survival of the mice injected with LPS. DEX administration could significantly reduce the levels of serum TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), and nitrite. DEX also down-regulated the expression of liver-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and up-regulated the levels of serum anti-inflammatory cytokines like TGF-beta1 and IL-4, hepatic and splenic arginase, in LPS-injected mice. The enhanced therapeutic effect of CT correlated with reduced pathological symptoms, decreased Th1 cytokines, increased TGF-beta1 and arginase levels compared to the mice administered with either of the monotherapies. The CT group had significantly increased expression of hepatic Hsp 70 and reduced septic shock associated histopathology, in lung and liver, compared to the mice treated with either DEX or L-arg.
The therapeutic combination therapy with DEX and L-arg, at the appropriate dose, time, and sequence of administration, changed the cytokine profile, in favor of reducing the inflammatory response. The significantly enhanced survival observed in the CT group was accompanied by an increased hepatic Hsp 70, hepatic arginase, splenic arginase, and decreased organ injury. This novel concept of combined therapy could form the basis of an effective therapeutic approach in the treatment of sepsis and septic shock.
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ABSTRACT: Endotoxemia induces a series of inflammatory responses that may result in lung injury. However, heat shock protein72 (HSP72) has the potential to protect the lungs from damage. The objective of this study was to determine whether prior exercise conditioning could increase the expression of HSP72 in the lungs and attenuate lung damage in diabetic rats receiving lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in adult male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise groups. Rats in the exercise condition ran on a treadmill 5 days/week, 30-60 min/day, with an intensity of 1.0 mile/hour over a 3-week period. Rats received an intravenous infusion of LPS after 24 hrs from the last training session. Elevated lavage tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ) level in response to LPS was more marked in diabetic rats. HSP72 expression in lungs was significantly increased after exercise conditioning, but less pronounced in diabetic rats. After administration of LPS, exercised rats displayed higher survival rate as well as decreased lavage TNF- α level and lung edema in comparison to sedentary rats. Our findings suggest that exercise conditioning could attenuate the occurrence of inflammatory responses and lung damage, thereby reducing mortality rate in diabetic rats during endotoxemia.Journal of Diabetes Research 12/2013; 2013:527090. DOI:10.1155/2013/527090 · 3.54 Impact Factor
The Open Nitric Oxide Journal 05/2010; 2(2):20-36. DOI:10.2174/1875042701002020020
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ABSTRACT: Activated mast cells are involved in the pathogenesis of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-related injury. Dexamethasone has been widely used to protect organs from I/R injury. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of treatment with dexamethasone at different stages of the II/R process on mast cell infiltration and activity and intestinal injury. Kunming mice were randomized and subjected to a sham surgery or the II/R induction by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 30 min and then reperfusion. During the II/R induction, the mice were treated intravenously with dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) for 30 min before ischemia (pretreatment group), at 5 min after clamping the superior mesenteric artery (isc-treatment group), or at the beginning of perfusion (rep-treatment group), respectively. The levels of intestinal injury, mast cell infiltration and activity, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the intestines, and mouse survival rates were measured. The death rates, levels of intestinal injury, mast cell infiltration and activity, and tumor necrosis factor α and myeloperoxidase activity in the intestinal tissues from the II/R group were similar to those from the isc-treatment and rep-treatment groups of mice and were significantly higher than those from the sham group. In contrast, pretreatment with dexamethasone significantly mitigated the II/R-induced mast cell infiltration and activity, inflammation, and intestinal injury and reduced the death rates in mice. Pretreatment with dexamethasone inhibits II/R injury by reducing mast cell-related inflammation in mice.Journal of Surgical Research 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.07.049 · 2.12 Impact Factor