Consequences of disrupting the dystrophin-sarcoglycan complex in cardiac and skeletal myopathy.
ABSTRACT Mutations that disrupt the dystrophin glycoprotein complex lead to plasma membrane instability of cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle myofibers. Instability of the plasma membrane leads to degeneration largely due to activation of a necrotic process in these disorders. In response to ongoing degeneration, skeletal muscle exhibits robust regeneration while in cardiac muscle regeneration is not obvious. The dystrophin complex is concentrated along the plasma membrane in costameric structures that correspond to the Z bands of sarcomeres, thus positioning the dystrophin complex to transmit force between the sarcomere and the plasma membrane to the extracellular matrix. Although it is apparent that this position is important for perpendicular force transmission, it is clear that the dystrophin complex also fulfills signaling roles. Nitric oxide synthase and stress-induced signaling cascades are activated to participate in protection but may also contribute to pathology.
Article: Myogenic Akt signaling upregulates the utrophin-glycoprotein complex and promotes sarcolemma stability in muscular dystrophy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by dystrophin mutations that lead to structural instability of the sarcolemma membrane, myofiber degeneration/regeneration and progressive muscle wasting. Here we show that myogenic Akt signaling in mouse models of dystrophy promotes increased expression of utrophin, which replaces the function of dystrophin thereby preventing sarcolemma damage and muscle wasting. In contrast to previous suggestions that increased Akt in dystrophy was a secondary consequence of pathology, our findings demonstrate a pivotal role for this signaling pathway such that modulation of Akt can significantly affect disease outcome by amplification of existing, physiological compensatory mechanisms.Human Molecular Genetics 12/2008; 18(2):318-27. · 7.64 Impact Factor