Role of capsaicin-sensitive afferents and sensory neuropeptides in endotoxin-induced airway inflammation and consequent bronchial hyperreactivity in the mouse.
ABSTRACT Substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) released from capsaicin-sensitive afferents induce neurogenic inflammation via NK(1), NK(2) and CGRP1 receptor activation. This study examines the role of capsaicin-sensitive fibres and sensory neuropeptides in endotoxin-induced airway inflammation and consequent bronchial hyperreactivity with functional, morphological and biochemical techniques in mice. Carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction was measured with whole body plethysmography 24 h after intranasal lipopolysaccharide administration. SP and CGRP were determined with radioimmunoassay, myeloperoxidase activity with spectrophotometry, interleukin-1beta with ELISA and histopathological changes with semiquantitative scoring from lung samples. Treatments with resiniferatoxin for selective destruction of capsaicin-sensitive afferents, NK(1) antagonist SR 140333, NK(2) antagonist SR 48968, their combination, or CGRP1 receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37) were performed. Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased lung SP and CGRP concentrations, which was prevented by resiniferatoxin pretreatment. Resiniferatoxin-desensitization markedly enhanced inflammation, but decreased bronchoconstriction. CGRP(8-37) or combination of SR 140333 and SR 48968 diminished neutrophil accumulation, MPO levels and IL-1beta production, airway hyperresponsiveness was inhibited only by SR 48968. This is the first evidence that capsaicin-sensitive afferents exert a protective role in endotoxin-induced airway inflammation, but contribute to increased bronchoconstriction. Activation of CGRP1 receptors or NK(1)+NK(2) receptors participate in granulocyte accumulation, but NK(2) receptors play predominant role in enhanced airway resistance.
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ABSTRACT: Resiniferatoxin, the most potent agonist of inflammatory pain/vanilloid receptor/cation channel (TRPV1) can be used for neuron subtype specific ablation of pain generating cells at the level of the peripheral nervous system by Ca(2+)-excytotoxicity. Molecular neurosurgery is an emerging technology either to alleviate severe pain in cancer or treat/prevent different local neuropathies. Our aim was determining sensory modalities that may be lost after resiniferatoxin treatment. Newborn or adult mice were treated with resiniferatoxin, then changes in chemical and heat sensitivity were correlated with alterations of the cell composition of sensory ganglions. Only mice treated at adult age became less sensitive to heat stimuli, while both treatment groups lost sensitivity to specific vanilloid agonists of TRPV1 and, interestingly, to allyl-isothiocyanate, a selective agonist of TRPA1. Our in vivo and post mortem analytical results confirmed that TRPV1 and TRPA1 function together and resiniferatoxin-mediated neurosurgery removes both sensor molecules. In adult mice resiniferatoxin causes: i) desensitization to heat and ii) sensitization to cold. Cold hyperalgesia, an imbalance in thermosensation, might be conferred by a prominent cold receptor that is expressed in surviving resiniferatoxin-resistant sensory neurons and compensates for pain signals lost with TRPA1 and TRPV1 double positive cells in the peripheral nervous system.The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques 04/2009; 36(2):234-41. · 0.97 Impact Factor