Relation of osteoprotegerin to coronary calcium and aortic plaque (from The Dallas Heart Study)
ABSTRACT Circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been shown to be elevated in patients with vascular disease. The role of OPG as a biomarker for atherosclerosis in a large, unselected population is not well known. Plasma OPG levels were measured in 3,386 subjects in the Dallas Heart Study, a multiethnic, population-based probability sample of adults aged 30 to 65 years. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by electron beam computed tomography. Aortic plaque was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations among OPG, cardiovascular risk factors, CAC, and aortic plaque. Age, female gender, black race, smoking, personal and family history of coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, CAC, and aortic plaque were significantly associated with higher plasma OPG levels (p <0.01) in univariable analyses. The prevalence of CAC and aortic plaque increased across OPG quartiles (p <0.001 for each). An OPG level in the fourth quartile was independently associated with CAC (RR 1.39, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.93) and aortic plaque (RR 1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.86) after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and family history of premature CAD. In conclusion, plasma OPG is independently associated with CAC and aortic plaque in an unselected population, suggesting it may be a novel biomarker for atherosclerosis in humans.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have an increased mortality, mainly caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein involved in the regulation of the vascular calcification process. Previous studies have demonstrated that OPG is a prognostic marker of mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate if OPG was a prognostic marker of all-cause mortality in high-risk patients with end-stage renal disease and CVD. Methods: We prospectively followed 206 HD patients with CVD. OPG was measured at baseline and the patients were followed for 2 years or until reaching the primary endpoint, i.e., all-cause mortality. Results: All-cause mortality during follow-up was 44% (90/206). High OPG was associated with increased mortality, using the first tertile as reference, with an unadjusted HR of 1.70 (CI 1.00 - 2.88) for the second tertile and HR of 1.63 (CI 0.96 - 2.78) for the third tertile. In a multivariate Cox-regression analysis age, CRP and OPG in both the second and third tertile were significantly associated with increased mortality In the unadjusted survival analysis, a test for trend of OPG yielded a p-value of 0.08; in the adjusted analyses, the p-value for trend was 0.03. Conclusions: In a high-risk population of hemodialysis patients with previously documented cardiovascular disease, a high level of OPG was an independent risk marker of all-cause mortality.Clinical nephrology 04/2013; 80(3). DOI:10.5414/CN107803 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is the principal cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and has many risk factors, among which is diabetes. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble glycoprotein, involved in bone metabolism. OPG is also found in other tissues, and studies have shown that it is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells. OPG has been implicated in various inflammations and also has been linked to diabetes mellitus. Increased serum OPG levels were found in patients with diabetes and poor glycemic control. Furthermore, prepubertal children with type 1 diabetes have significantly increased OPG levels. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) is not found in the vasculature in normal conditions, but may appear in calcifying areas. OPG and RANKL are important regulators of mineral metabolism in both bone and vascular tissues. Few data are available on the relationship between plasma OPG/RANKL levels and endothelial dysfunction as assessed using noninvasive methods like ultrasound indexes, neither in the general population nor, more specifically, in diabetic patients. The aim of our review study was to investigate, based on the existing data, these interrelationships in order to identify a means of predicting, via noninvasive methods, later development of endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications in diabetic patients.International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2013; 2013:182060. DOI:10.1155/2013/182060 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the developed world has increased at an alarming rate over the last few decades. GDM has been shown to be associated with postpartum diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. A history of previous GDM (pGDM), associated or not with any of these metabolic abnormalities, can increase the risk of developing not only type 2 diabetes mellitus but also cardiovascular disease (CVD) independent of a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes later in life. In this paper we discuss the relationship among inflammatory markers, metabolic abnormalities, and vascular dysfunction in women with pGDM. We also review the current knowledge on metabolic modifications occurring in normal pregnancy and the link between alterations of a normal metabolic state with the long-term maternal complications that may result in increased CVD risk. Our review of studies on pGDM prompts us to recommend that these women be considered a population at risk for later CVD events, which however could be avoided via the use of specially designed follow-up programs in the future.International Journal of Endocrinology 03/2012; 2012:458610. DOI:10.1155/2012/458610 · 1.52 Impact Factor