Shilajit: a review.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062, India.
Phytotherapy Research (Impact Factor: 2.4). 06/2007; 21(5):401-5. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2100
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Shilajit is a pale-brown to blackish-brown exudation, of variable consistency, exuding from layers of rocks in many mountain ranges of the world, especially the Himalayas and Hindukush ranges of the Indian subcontinent. It has been found to consist of a complex mixture of organic humic substances and plant and microbial metabolites occurring in the rock rhizospheres of its natural habitat. Shilajit has been used as a rejuvenator and an adaptogen for thousands of years, in one form or another, as part of traditional systems of medicine in a number of countries. Many therapeutic properties have been ascribed to it, a number of which have been verified by modern scientific evaluation. Shilajit has been attributed with many miraculous healing properties.

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    ABSTRACT: Shilajit (mumie; moomiyo, mummiyo) has been used for a wide variety of illnesses and conditions for many years. However, relatively few well-controlled human studies have been conducted on the effects of shiliajit, although a growing number of studies have been published in recent years involving animal and in vitro systems. The safety of shilajit is well documented based on animal and human studies. Various research studies indicate that shilajit exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, adaptogenic, immunomodulatory, and anti-dyslipidemic properties. Animal and human studies indicate that shilajit enhances spermatogenesis. Furthermore, animal and human data support its use as a 'revitalizer', enhancing physical performance and relieving fatigue with enhanced production of ATP. Key constituents in shilajit responsible for these effects appear to be dibenzo-α-pyrones and fulvic acid and their derivatives. Various mechanistic studies provide support for the above observed effects. Additional well-controlled human and animal studies involving the use of standardized products are needed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 06/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective(s): Brain edema is one of the most serious causes of death within the first few days after trauma brain injury (TBI). In this study we have investigated the role of Shilajit on brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, intracranial pressure (ICP) and neurologic outcomes following brain trauma. Materials and Methods: Diffuse traumatic brain trauma was induced in rats by drop of a 250 g weight from a 2 m high (Marmarou's methods). Animals were randomly divided into 5 groups including sham, TBI, TBI-vehicle, TBI-Shi150 group and TBI-Shi250 group. Rats were undergone intraperitoneal injection of Shilajit and vehicle at 1, 24, 48 and 72 hr after trauma. Brain water content, BBB permeability, ICP and neurologic outcomes were finally measured. Results: Brain water and Evans blue dye contents showed significant decrease in Shilajit-treated groups compared to the TBI-vehicle and TBI groups. Intracranial pressure at 24, 48 and 72 hr after trauma had significant reduction in Shilajit-treated groups as compared to TBI-vehicle and TBI groups (P<0.001). The rate of neurologic outcomes improvement at 4, 24, 48 and 72 hr after trauma showed significant increase in Shilajit-treated groups in comparison to theTBI- vehicle and TBI groups (P <0.001). Conclusion: The present results indicated that Shilajit may cause in improvement of neurologic outcomes through decreasing brain edema, disrupting of BBB, and ICP after the TBI.
    Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Science 07/2013; 16(7):858-64. · 0.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Mineral pitch (MP), a traditional medicine, is proposed to boost immunity in conditions that suppress Th1 cytokines such as AIDS/HIV, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis and cancer. Objective: This study investigates the immunoregulatory mechanisms of MP in innate, humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Materials and methods: Mice given MP (100, 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg, orally) for 10 consecutive days were immunized intravenously with goat RBC or ovalbumin, and investigated for plaque-forming cells (PFC), hemagglutination titer, hypersensitivity response, lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage function. Results: MP increased PFC (330.2 versus 182.2/10(6) splenocytes) in mice immunized with goat RBC and elicited ovalbumin-specific IgG titer at 400 mg/kg. Increase in Th1 immunity was correlated with the increased level of IFN-γ (724 versus 470 pg/ml) and decreased IL-4 (96 versus 178 pg/ml). CD4(+)/CD3(+) ratio and delayed-type hypersensitivity response also increased to, respectively, 20.62 ± 0.59 (versus 16.47 ± 0.72) and 1.59 ± 0.12 (versus 0.87 ± 0.10 mm) in MP-treated mice. MP increased lymphocyte proliferation (11.14 ± 0.60 versus 5.81 ± 0.40 SI) and macrophage phagocyte response (0.24 ± 0.02 versus 0.15 ± 0.009), expressed as absorbance at 570 nm, but decreased nitrite production (17.4 ± 1.10 versus 24.3 ± 1.30 µM/10(6) cells). We also observed an increased bone marrow cellularity (24.5 ± 1.10 versus 17.10 ± 0.70 cells/femur) and WBC count (12 667 ± 377 versus 9178 ± 213 cells/mm(3)) following MP treatment. There was no sign of toxicity at 400 mg/kg, 1/12th of reported LD50. Conclusion: MP elicits a dose-dependent Th1 immune response.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 06/2013; · 1.21 Impact Factor

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