A novel enoxaparin regime for ST elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: A WEST sub-study
To evaluate the anticoagulation effect of subcutaneous (SQ) and intravenous (IV) enoxaparin through systematic anti-Xa sampling during primary PCI for acute STEMI.
Although appropriate anticoagulation is essential to maximize the efficacy and safety of primary PCI, the optimal dosing of enoxaparin in this setting is unclear.
STEMI patients randomized to primary PCI received ASA, clopidogrel 300 mg and enoxaparin 1 mg/kg SQ at earliest point of care, including prehospital. Plasma anti-Xa determination occurred just prior to and after primary PCI. Supplemental IV enoxaparin (0.3-0.5 mg/kg) and abciximab was encouraged prior to PCI.
The 1st anti-Xa level 56 min (median, IQR 47-77) post SQ enoxaparin was 0.28 U/ml (0.23-0.41); 85% of patients (28/33) were <0.5 U/ml (the recommended therapeutic level). Following PCI, 126 min (118-185) after SQ enoxaparin in those without IV dosing (8/33) the 2nd anti-Xa level was 0.44 U/ml (0.29-0.53); 6 of 8 patients remained <0.5 U/ml. With IV enoxaparin (25/33) the 2nd anti-Xa was 0.96 U/ml (0.82-1.16) 97 min (82-109) after SQ enoxaparin: all were >or=0.5 U/ml and 2 had levels 1.5 U/ml.
A single SQ enoxaparin dose fails to achieve anti-Xa levels >or=0.5 U/ml in the majority of STEMI patients. When combined with a strategy of supplemental IV enoxaparin, adequate anti-Xa levels were achieved in all patients with few having levels >1.5 U/ml. This regime of SQ injection with additional IV enoxaparin provides an attractive strategy enhancing effective early anti-thrombotic therapy at first medical contact prior to primary PCI.
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