Sleep-related minor motor events in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.
ABSTRACT Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is characterized by a wide spectrum of sleep-related motor manifestations of increasing complexity, ranging from major episodes to brief motor events (minor motor events, MMEs). NFLE patients may exhibit a large quantity of MMEs in the form of short-lasting stereotyped movements. Whereas major episodes are considered epileptiform manifestations, it remains unclear whether the MMEs are related to epileptiform discharges (EDs).
To study the relation between EDs and the occurrence of MMEs, we report a detailed neurophysiolgical evaluation in NFLE subjects explored by using implanted electrodes.
The median value of ED-related movements was 71.8%. Motor expression in relation to epileptiform discharge was surprisingly variable; no peculiar expression of MMEs could be attributed to the presence of EDs.
Our data suggest that ED-associated MMEs are extremely polymorphous, and no univocal relation to EDs can be identified. We hypothesize that MMEs are not a direct effect of epileptiform discharge (i.e., not epileptic in origin), but the result of aspecific disinhibition of innate motor patterns. We warn clinicians that the epileptic nature of minimal motor phenomena in NFLE cannot be established on the clinical phenomenology of the event.
Article: Paroxysmal arousals during sleep.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Six patients complained of distressing sudden awakenings with abnormal motor activity during sleep causing insomnia. Polysomnography showed paroxysmal short-lasting arousals during NREM, especially slow-wave sleep, associated with complex movements and autonomic activation. Ictal and interictal EEG never showed epileptic discharges except in 1 patient who also had a tonic-clonic seizure during sleep. Carbamazepine was the only effective medication in 2 patients. Paroxysmal arousals represent a sleep disturbance that may be related to deep epileptic foci.Neurology 08/1990; 40(7):1063-6. · 8.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe ictal clinical manifestations of frontal lobe epileptic seizures in 22 patients. After examination of all ictal clinical data, 14 catergories of signs and symptoms were established. The validity of the ictal clinical data used was confirmed on the basis of 99 frontal lobe seizures recorded by tele-electroencephalogram or tele-stereo-electroencephalogram. The main conclusion is that the frontal lobe appears to be partially connected with motor acitivity.Neurology 11/1977; 27(10):951-8. · 8.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Four patients with seizures of presumed temporal lobe origin are presented in whom a definite focal ictal onset in the orbitofrontal cortex was revealed during recording, either by chronically implanted electrodes or ECoG. In three cases automatisms occurred concomitantly with orbitofrontal activation without spread of paroxysmal activity into the temporal structures monitored. With eight additional cases of possible orbitofrontal epilepsy found on reviewing the literature, two subgroups emerge: (1) patients with primarily psychomotor-type fits, and (2) patients with loss of consciousness, head and eye deviation, and generalized convulsions. Scalp EEGs, in patients on whom we have available data, manifested bilaterally synchronous, paroxysmal discharges which were bifrontal, frontopolar, or maximal in one anterior quadrant, with or without evidence of additional temporal lobe involvement. On the basis of anatomic and physiological studies, as well as our own electrographic data, it is felt that a posterior orbitofrontal and temporo-limbic relationship exists, within which autonomous epileptogenic zones may develop, with the ability to discharge directly and independently to subcortical centers, while eliciting similar clinical patterns.Epilepsia 04/1975; 16(1):141-58. · 3.91 Impact Factor