Intracerebral infusate distribution by convection-enhanced delivery in humans with malignant gliomas: Descriptive effects of target anatomy and catheter positioning
ABSTRACT Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) holds tremendous potential for drug delivery to the brain. However, little is known about the volume of distribution achieved within human brain tissue or how target anatomy and catheter positioning influence drug distribution. The primary objective of this study was to quantitatively describe the distribution of a high molecular weight agent by CED relative to target anatomy and catheter position in patients with malignant gliomas.
Seven adult patients with recurrent malignant gliomas underwent intracerebral infusion of the tumor-targeted cytotoxin, cintredekin besudotox, concurrently with 123I-labeled human serum albumin. High-resolution single-photon emission computed tomographic images were obtained at 24 and 48 hours and were coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans. The distribution of 123I-labeled human serum albumin relative to target anatomy and catheter position was analyzed.
Intracerebral CED infusions were well-tolerated and some resulted in a broad distribution of 123I-labeled human serum albumin, but target anatomy and catheter positioning had a significant influence on infusate distribution even within non-contrast-enhancing areas of brain. Intratumoral infusions were anisotropic and resulted in limited coverage of the enhancing tumor area and adjacent peritumoral regions.
CED has the potential to deliver high molecular weight agents into tumor-infiltrated brain parenchyma with volumes of distribution that are clinically relevant. Target tissue anatomy and catheter position are critical parameters in optimizing drug delivery.
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ABSTRACT: Object Coinfused surrogate imaging tracers can provide direct insight into the properties of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) in the nervous system. To better understand the distributive properties of CED in a clinical circumstance, the authors analyzed the imaging findings in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) patients undergoing coinfusion of Gd-DTPA and interleukin-13-Pseudomonas exotoxin (IL13-PE). Methods Consecutive patients undergoing CED (maximal rates of 5 or 10 μl/minute) of Gd-DTPA (1 or 5 mM) and IL13-PE (0.125 μg/ml or 0.25 μg/ml) for DIPG were included. Real-time MRI was performed during infusions, and imaging results were analyzed. Results Four patients (2 males, 2 females; mean age at initial infusion 13.0 ± 5.3 years; range 5-17 years) underwent 5 infusions into DIPGs. Brainstem infusions were clearly identified on T1-weighted MR images at 1-mM (1 infusion) and 5-mM (4 infusions) coinfused Gd-DTPA concentrations. While the volume of distribution (Vd) increased progressively with volume of infusion (Vi) (mean volume 2.5 ± 0.9 ml; range 1.1-3.7 ml), final Vd:Vi ratios were significantly reduced with lower Gd-DTPA concentration (Vd:Vi for 1 mM of 1.6 compared with a mean Vd:Vi ratio for 5 mM of 3.3 ± 1.0) (p = 0.04). Similarly, anatomical distribution patterns were affected by preferential flow along parallel axial fiber tracts, into prior infusion cannula tracts and intraparenchymal air pockets, and leak back around the infusion cannula at the highest rate of infusion. Conclusions Magnetic resonance imaging of a coinfused Gd-DTPA surrogate tracer provided direct insight into the properties of CED in a clinical application. While clinically relevant Vds can be achieved by convective delivery, specific tissue properties can affect distribution volume and pattern, including Gd-DTPA concentration, preferential flow patterns, and infusion rate. Understanding of these properties of CED can enhance its clinical application. Part of clinical trial no. NCT00880061 ( ClinicalTrials.gov ).Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 01/2014; DOI:10.3171/2013.11.PEDS136 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Systemic drug delivery to solid tumors involving macromolecular therapeutic agents is challenging for many reasons. Amongst them is their chaotic microvasculature which often leads to inadequate and uneven uptake of the drug. Localized drug delivery can circumvent such obstacles and convection-enhanced delivery (CED) - controlled infusion of the drug directly into the tissue - has emerged as a promising delivery method for distributing macromolecules over larger tissue volumes. In this study, a three-dimensional MR image-based computational porous media transport model accounting for realistic anatomical geometry and tumor leakiness was developed for predicting the interstitial flow field and distribution of albumin tracer following CED into the hind-limb tumor (KHT sarcoma) in a mouse. Sensitivity of the model to changes in infusion flow rate, catheter placement and tissue hydraulic conductivity were investigated. The model predictions suggest that 1) tracer distribution is asymmetric due to heterogeneous porosity; 2) tracer distribution volume varies linearly with infusion volume within the whole leg, and exponentially within the tumor reaching a maximum steady-state value; 3) infusion at the center of the tumor with high flow rates leads to maximum tracer coverage in the tumor with minimal leakage outside; and 4) increasing the tissue hydraulic conductivity lowers the tumor interstitial fluid pressure and decreases the tracer distribution volume within the whole leg and tumor. The model thus predicts that the interstitial fluid flow and drug transport is sensitive to porosity and changes in extracellular space. This image-based model thus serves as a potential tool for exploring the effects of transport heterogeneity in tumors.PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e89594. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089594 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A previously proposed finite element model that considers geometric and material nonlinearities and the free boundary problems that occur at the catheter tip and in the annular zone around the lateral surface of the catheter was revised and was used to fit a power-law formula to predict backflow length during infusions into brain tissue. Compared to a closed-form solution based on linear elasticity, the power-law formula for compliant materials predicted a substantial lower influence of the shear modulus and catheter radius on the backflow length, whereas the corresponding influence for stiffer materials was more consistent with the closed-form solution. The finite element model predicted decreases of the backflow length for reduction of the shear modulus for highly compliant materials (shear modulus less than 500 Pa) due to the increased area of infusion and the high fluid fraction near the infusion cavity that greatly increased the surface area available for fluid transfer and reduced the hydraulic resistance toward the tissue. These results show the importance of taking into account the material and geometrical nonlinearities that arise near the infusion surface as well as the change of hydraulic conductivity with strain for a proper characterization of backflow length during flow-controlled infusions into the brain.Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing 08/2014; 52(10). DOI:10.1007/s11517-014-1187-1 · 1.50 Impact Factor