Response to Correspondence: Pardossi-Piquard et al., “Presenilin-Dependent Transcriptional Control of the Aβ-Degrading Enzyme Neprilysin by Intracellular Domains of βAPP and APLP.” Neuron 46, 541–554

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Neuron (Impact Factor: 15.98). 03/2007; 53(4):483-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2007.01.024
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    ABSTRACT: One of the characteristic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) leading to plaque formation and toxic oligomeric Aβ complexes. Besides the de novo synthesis of Aβ caused by amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ levels are also highly dependent on Aβ degradation. Several enzymes are described to cleave Aβ. In this review we focus on one of the most prominent Aβ degrading enzymes, the zinc-metalloprotease Neprilysin (NEP). In the first part of the review we discuss beside the general role of NEP in Aβ degradation the alterations of the enzyme observed during normal aging and the progression of AD. In vivo and cell culture experiments reveal that a decreased NEP level results in an increased Aβ level and vice versa. In a pathological situation like AD, it has been reported that NEP levels and activity are decreased and it has been suggested that certain polymorphisms in the NEP gene result in an increased risk for AD. Conversely, increasing NEP activity in AD mouse models revealed an improvement in some behavioral tests. Therefore it has been suggested that increasing NEP might be an interesting potential target to treat or to be protective for AD making it indispensable to understand the regulation of NEP. Interestingly, it is discussed that the APP intracellular domain (AICD), one of the cleavage products of APP processing, which has high similarities to Notch receptor processing, might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of NEP. However, the mechanisms of NEP regulation by AICD, which might be helpful to develop new therapeutic strategies, are up to now controversially discussed and summarized in the second part of this review. In addition, we review the impact of AICD not only in the transcriptional regulation of NEP but also of further genes.
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 01/2013; 5:98. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2013.00098 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The amyloid-β precursor protein (βAPP) undergoes several cleavages by enzymatic activities called secretases. Numerous studies aimed at studying the biogenesis and catabolic fate of Aβ peptides, the proteinaceous component of the senile plaques that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease-affected brains. Relatively recently, another secretase-mediated β-APP-derived catabolite called APP IntraCellular Domain (AICD) entered the game. Whether AICD corresponded to a biologically inert by-pass product of βAPP processing or whether it could harbor its own function remained questionable. In this study, we review the mechanisms by which AICD is generated and how its production is regulated. Furthermore, we discuss the degradation mechanism underlying its rapid catabolic fate. Finally, we review putative AICD-related functions and more particularly, the numerous studies indicating that AICD could translocate to the nucleus and control at a transcriptional level, the expression of a series of proteins involved in various functions including the control of cell death and Aβ degradation.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 11/2011; 120 Suppl 1:109-24. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07475.x · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since its proposal in 1994, the amyloid cascade hypothesis has prevailed as the mainstream research subject on the molecular mechanisms leading to the Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most of the field had been historically based on the role of the different forms of aggregation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). However, a soluble intracellular fragment termed amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD) is produced in conjunction with Aβ fragments. This peptide had been shown to be highly toxic in both culture neurons and transgenic mice models. With the advent of this new toxic fragment, the centerpiece for the ethiology of the disease may be changed. This paper discusses the potential role of multiprotein complexes between the AICD and its adapter protein Fe65 and how this could be a potentially important new agent in the neurodegeneration observed in the AD.
    02/2012; 2012:353145. DOI:10.1155/2012/353145