Epigenetic control of the foxp3 locus in regulatory T cells.
ABSTRACT Compelling evidence suggests that the transcription factor Foxp3 acts as a master switch governing the development and function of CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, whether transcriptional control of Foxp3 expression itself contributes to the development of a stable Treg lineage has thus far not been investigated. We here identified an evolutionarily conserved region within the foxp3 locus upstream of exon-1 possessing transcriptional activity. Bisulphite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed complete demethylation of CpG motifs as well as histone modifications within the conserved region in ex vivo isolated Foxp3(+)CD25(+)CD4(+) Tregs, but not in naïve CD25(-)CD4(+) T cells. Partial DNA demethylation is already found within developing Foxp3(+) thymocytes; however, Tregs induced by TGF-beta in vitro display only incomplete demethylation despite high Foxp3 expression. In contrast to natural Tregs, these TGF-beta-induced Foxp3(+) Tregs lose both Foxp3 expression and suppressive activity upon restimulation in the absence of TGF-beta. Our data suggest that expression of Foxp3 must be stabilized by epigenetic modification to allow the development of a permanent suppressor cell lineage, a finding of significant importance for therapeutic applications involving induction or transfer of Tregs and for the understanding of long-term cell lineage decisions.
Article: IPEX Syndrome, FOXP3 and Cancer.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this review, we introduce the IPEX syndrome and its relationship with germline mutations of the FOXP3 gene. We then describe the multiple functional roles of FOXP3 in regulatory T cells and epithelial cells as well as in IPEX syndrome and tumor progression. Potential mechanisms of FOXP3 inactivation and transcriptional regulation are discussed with recent advances. Finally, we point out current issues and a potential FOXP3-mediated therapeutic strategy as well as the reactivation of FOXP3 in patients with IPEX syndrome and cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Organ transplantation is widely acknowledged as the best option for end stage failure of vital organs. Long-term graft survival is however limited by graft rejection, a destructive process resulting from the response of recipient's immune system against donor-specific alloantigens. Prevention of rejection currently relies exclusively on immunosuppressive drugs that lack antigen specificity and therefore increase the risk for infections and cancers. Induction of donor-specific tolerance would provide indefinite graft survival without morbidity and therefore represents the grail of transplant immunologists. Progresses in the comprehension of immunoregulatory mechanisms over the last decades have paved the way for cell therapies to induce allograft tolerance. The first part of the present article reviews the promising results obtained in experimental models with adoptive transfer of ex vivo-expanded regulatory CD4+ T cells (CD4+ Tregs) and discuss which source and specificity should be preferred for transferred CD4+ Tregs. Interestingly, B cells have recently emerged as potent regulatory cells, able to establish a privileged crosstalk with CD4+ T cells. The second part of the present article reviews the evidences demonstrating the crucial role of regulatory B cells in transplantation tolerance. We propose the possibility to harness B cell regulatory functions to improve cell-based therapies aiming at inducing allograft tolerance.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2015; 6:149. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00149
The Journal of Immunology 04/2015; 194(8):3533. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500248 · 5.36 Impact Factor