Yoghurt containing galacto-oligosaccharides, prunes and linseed reduces the severity of mild constipation in elderly subjects.
ABSTRACT Constipation is a common problem in the elderly. Dietary fibre is recommended for its treatment. The aim was to examine whether yoghurt containing galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), prunes and linseed relieve constipation in elderly subjects.
A randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study.
A group of 43 elderly subjects with self-reported constipation (mean age 76 years, range 61-92 years, 32 females, 11 males).
The study consisted of a 2-week baseline period and 2, 3-week dietary interventions, with a 2-week wash-out period between the interventions. During the interventions, the subjects ingested, in random order, 260 g/day of either control yoghurt or test yoghurt containing GOS (12 g/day), prunes (12 g/day) and linseed (6 g/day). The use of laxatives was controlled and only allowed after 2 days without defecation.
Defecation frequency was 5.7 times/week during the baseline period. During the test yoghurt period, defecation frequency was higher (8.0 vs 7.1 times/week, P=0.011), defecation was easier (on the scale 0-3, 1.3 vs 1.5, P=0.010), and there was a tendency towards softer stools (on the scale 0-3, 2.1 vs 2.2, P=0.059) compared with the control yoghurt period. The subjects felt that the test yoghurt relieved constipation more effectively than the control yoghurt (P=0.005). The sum of gastrointestinal symptoms did not differ between the interventions. The use of laxatives remained constant throughout the study.
Daily intake of yoghurt containing GOS, prunes and linseed reduced the severity of constipation in elderly subjects with mild constipation.
Valio Ltd, R&D.
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ABSTRACT: The establishment of a balanced intestinal microflora which may protect against infection is desirable for the preterm infant. To investigate the effect of a preterm formula milk supplement consisting of oligosaccharides in similar proportions to human milk on the faecal flora and stool characteristics of preterm infants. To resemble the effect of human milk, an oligosaccharide mixture consisting of 90% galacto-oligosaccharides and 10% fructo-oligosaccharides was used to supplement a standard preterm formula at a concentration of 10 g/l. This supplemented formula was studied in 15 preterm infants, and the results were compared with those found in 15 infants fed a formula supplemented with maltodextrin as placebo. A group fed fortified mother's milk was investigated as a reference group (n = 12). On four days during a 28 day feeding period (1, 7, 14, and 28), the faecal flora was investigated, and stool characteristics, growth, and possible side effects were recorded. During the study period, the number of bifidobacteria in the group fed the oligosaccharide supplemented formula increased to the upper range of bifidobacteria counts in the reference group. The difference between the supplemented and non-supplemented groups was highly significant (p = 0.0008). The stool characteristics were also influenced by the supplement: the stool frequency after 28 days was significantly lower in the control group than in the oligosaccharide supplemented group (p = 0.0079) and the reference group (p < 0.0001). Over the study period, the stool consistency in the control group became harder, but remained fairly stable in the other two groups. There was no effect of the different diets on the incidence of side effects (crying, regurgitation, vomiting) or on weight gain or length gain. Supplementing preterm formula with a mixture of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides at a concentration of 10 g/l stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria in the intestine and results in stool characteristics similar to those found in preterm infants fed human milk. Therefore prebiotic mixtures such as the one studied may help to improve intestinal tolerance to enteral feeding in preterm infants.Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition 05/2002; 86(3):F178-81. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research on human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) has received much attention in recent years. However, it started about a century ago with the observation that oligosaccharides might be growth factors for a so-called bifidus flora in breast-fed infants and extends to the recent finding of cell adhesion molecules in human milk. The latter are involved in inflammatory events recognizing carbohydrate sequences that also can be found in human milk. The similarities between epithelial cell surface carbohydrates and oligosaccharides in human milk strengthen the idea that specific interactions of those oligosaccharides with pathogenic microorganisms do occur preventing the attachment of microbes to epithelial cells. HMOs may act as soluble receptors for different pathogens, thus increasing the resistance of breast-fed infants. However, we need to know more about the metabolism of oligosaccharides in the gastrointestinal tract. How far are oligosaccharides degraded by intestinal enzymes and does oligosaccharide processing (e.g. degradation, synthesis, and elongation of core structures) occur in intestinal epithelial cells? Further research on HMOs is certainly needed to increase our knowledge of infant nutrition as it is affected by complex oligosaccharides.Annual Review of Nutrition 02/2000; 20:699-722. · 9.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To study the effect of the intake of 15 g nondigestible oligosaccharides per day on various parameters of large-bowel function, as well as on blood lipid concentrations and glucose absorption in man. Latin square, randomized, double-blind, diet-controlled. Metabolic research unit. Twelve apparently healthy men (mean age 23 years), recruited from the Institute's pool of volunteers, no drop-outs. Four treatment periods of 3 weeks: inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and control; analyses of stool weight, intestinal transit, faecal pH, short-chain fatty acids, bile acids, faecal enzymes, blood lipids and glucose absorption. Results: As compared to the control treatment: higher concentration of faecal acetate (inulin and GOS, P < 0.05) and valerate (inulin, P < 0.05), significantly lower concentration of faecal deoxycholic acid (inulin and FOS, P < 0.05 and P< 0.02, respectively) and beta-glucuronidase activity (inulin and GOS, P < 0.05 and P < 0.02 respectively). Other changes of faecal parameters and those of blood lipids and glucose absorption were statistically not significant. Results indicate that nondigestible oligosaccharides are (partly) fermented in the human colon, but in healthy young men the effects are limited. Also the consumption of 15 g nondigestible oligosaccharides does not seem to alter blood lipid concentrations and glucose absorption in our young healthy adults.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/1999; 53(1):1-7. · 2.76 Impact Factor