In vitro trans-translation of Thermus thermophilus: ribosomal protein S1 is not required for the early stage of trans-translation.
ABSTRACT Transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) plays a dual role as a tRNA and an mRNA in trans-translation, during which the ribosome replaces mRNA with tmRNA encoding the tag-peptide. These processes have been suggested to involve several tmRNA-binding proteins, including SmpB and ribosomal protein S1. To investigate the molecular mechanism of trans-translation, we developed in vitro systems using purified ribosome, elongation factors, tmRNA and SmpB from Thermus thermophilus. A stalled ribosome in complex with polyphenylalanyl-tRNA(Phe) was prepared as a target of tmRNA. A peptidyl transfer reaction from polyphenylalanyl-tRNA(Phe) to alanyl-tmRNA was observed in an SmpB-dependent manner. The next peptidyl transfer to aminoacyl-tRNA occurred specifically to the putative resume codon for the tag-peptide, which was confirmed by introducing a mutation in the codon. Thus, the in vitro systems developed in this study are useful to investigate the early steps of trans-translation. Using these in vitro systems, we investigated the function of ribosomal protein S1, which has been believed to play a role in trans-translation. Although T. thermophilus S1 tightly bound to tmRNA, as in the case of Escherichia coli S1, it had little or no effect on the early steps of trans-translation.
Article: Effects of ketoconazole on oestrus cycle and convulsant action of pentylenetetrazol in mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The frequency of oestrus cycles in female mice was significantly reduced by the implantation of a pellet of subcutaneous ketoconazole (50 mg every 6 days). The effect was more pronounced after 22 days than after 13 days and it was probably related with the progressive reduction in steroid synthesis induced by the inhibition of key steroidogenic P450 cytochromes by the drug. In addition, the influence of ketoconazole on the incidence of seizures after the administration of intraperitoneal pentylenetetrazol was evaluated in female mice. Pentylenetetrazol produced a higher percentage of seizures during dioestrus than during oestrus. Pretreatment with ketoconazole significantly increased the percentage of animals with induced seizures in oestrus but not in dioestrus as compared to controls, probably through reduced progesterone levels. The reduced seizure threshold confirm the modulatory role exerted by progesterone on central nervous system excitability, and may be relevant in epileptic patients undergoing antifungal therapy.Pharmacology & Toxicology 01/2002; 89(6):312-4.