One variant of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is defined by sporadic tumors of both the parathyroids and pituitary. The prevalence of identified MEN1 mutations in this variant is lower than in familial MEN1 (7% vs. 90%), suggesting different causes. Recently, one case of this variant had a germline mutation of p27(Kip1)/CDKN1B.
The objective was to test p27 in germline DNA from cases with tumors of both the parathyroids and pituitary.
Medical record review and sequence analysis in DNA were performed.
This study involved an inpatient and outpatient referral program for cases of endocrine tumors.
Sixteen index cases had sporadic tumors of two organs, both the parathyroids and the pituitary. There were 18 additional index cases with related features of familial tumors. Five subjects were normal controls. No case had an identified MEN1 mutation.
Clinical status of endocrine tumors was tabulated. Sequencing of germline DNA from index cases and control cases for the p27 gene was performed by PCR.
Endocrine tumor types and their expressions were measured, as were sequence changes in the p27 gene.
Tumor features were documented in index cases and families. One p27 germline single nucleotide change was identified. This predicted a silent substitution of Thr142Thr. Furthermore, there was a normal prevalence of heterozygosity for a common p27 polymorphism, making a large p27 deletion unlikely in all or most of these cases.
The MEN1 variant with sporadic parathyroid tumors, sporadic pituitary tumor, and no identified MEN1 mutation is usually not caused by p27 germline mutations. It is usually caused by as yet unknown process(es).
"The phenotype of MEN1 is broad and different combinations of endocrine and non endocrine manifestations have been described. About 30% MEN1 patients do not carry detectable MEN1 gene mutations
. Patients without detectable mutations may have mutations in introns or in the regulatory or untranslated regions. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors have occasionally been described in association with neurofibromatosis type 1, whereas an association with neurofibromatosis type 2 has never been reported.
This report refers to an Italian 69 year old woman with neurofibromatosis type 2 and a pancreatic gastrinoma. In the past she had encephalic meningiomas, a tongue schwannoma and bilateral acoustic neurinomas. She presented with weight loss and a long-term history of diarrhea, responsive to proton pump inhibitors. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed peptic ulcer of the duodenal bulb. Blood tests were normal, except for the elevation of plasma gastrin (1031 pg/ml; reference value <108) and chromogranin A (337 U/L; reference value <36). After secretin stimulation testing, the plasma gastrin level rose to 3789 pg/ml. The abdomen magnetic resonance imaging and gallium68-DOTATOC positron emission tomography scan demonstrated the presence of a 1.2 x 2 cm lesion in the pancreatic head and a liver metastatis. Pancreatic endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration revealed cytomorphologic features suggestive of pancreatic gastrinoma. Brain magnetic resonance showed a pituitary microadenoma. There was no evidence of hyperparathyroidism. The genetic test for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome mutation was negative.
This report focuses on the first case of coexistence of gastrinoma with neurofibromatosis type 2. Although the clinical relevance of this association remains to be determined, our case report will surely give cause for due consideration.
", respectively [Pellegata et al., 2006; Georgitsi et al., 2007; Karhu and Aaltonen, 2007; Ozawa et al. 2007; Agarwal et al., 2009]. These families could be regarded as subtypes of MEN1 rather than MEN1 phenocopies, as they are at risk of developing all the MEN1-associated tumours, in a E1098 Turner et al. Figure 5. Details of patient 4 (individual II.2), who represented a phenocopy of MEN1, was initially attributed to have clinical MEN1 on the basis of primary hyperparathyroidism and a microprolactinoma. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenocopies may confound the clinical diagnoses of hereditary disorders. We report phenocopies in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), an autosomal dominant disorder, characterised by the combined occurrence of parathyroid, pituitary and pancreatic tumours. We studied 261 affected individuals from 74 families referred with a clinical diagnosis of MEN1 and sought inconsistencies between the mutational and clinical data. We identified four patients from unrelated families with phenocopies. Patients 1 and 2 from families with MEN1, developed prolactinomas as the sole endocrinopathy but they did not harbour the germline MEN1 mutation present in their affected relatives. Patient 3, had acromegaly and recurrent hypercalcaemia following parathyroidectomy, whilst patient 4 had parathyroid tumours and a microprolactinoma. Patients 3 and 4 and their relatives did not have MEN1 mutations, but instead had familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH) due to a calcium-sensing receptor mutation (p.Arg680Cys), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour (HPT-JT) syndrome due to a hyperparathyroidism type 2 deletional-frameshift mutation (c.1239delA), respectively. Phenocopies may mimic MEN1 either by occurrence of a single sporadic endocrine tumour in a patient with familial MEN1, or occurrence of two endocrine abnormalities associated with different aetiologies. Phenocopies arose in >5% of MEN1 families, and awareness of them is important in the clinical management of MEN1 and other hereditary disorders.
Human Mutation 01/2010; 31(1):E1089-101. DOI:10.1002/humu.21170 · 5.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much of the global cancer research is focused on the most prevalent tumors; yet, less common tumor types warrant investigation, since A rare disorder is not necessarily an unimportant one . The present work discusses a rare tumor type, the benign adenomas of the pituitary gland, and presents the advances which, during the course of this thesis work, contributed to the elucidation of a fraction of their genetic background. Pituitary adenomas are benign neoplasms of the anterior pituitary lobe, accounting for approximately 15% of all intracranial tumors. Pituitary adenoma cells hypersecrete the hormones normally produced by the anterior pituitary tissue, such as growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL). Despite their non-metastasizing nature, these adenomas can cause significant morbidity and have to be adequately treated; otherwise, they can compromise the patient s quality of life, due to conditions provoked by hormonal hypersecretion, such as acromegaly in the case of GH-secreting adenomas, or due to compressive effects to surrounding tissues. The vast majority of pituitary adenomas arise sporadically, whereas a small subset occur as component of familial endocrine-related tumor syndromes, such as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and Carney complex (CNC). MEN1 is caused by germline mutations in the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene (11q13), whereas the majority of CNC cases carry germline mutations in the PRKAR1A gene (17q24). Pituitary adenomas are also encountered in familial settings outside the context of MEN1 and CNC, but unlike in the latter syndromes, their genetic background until recently remained elusive. Evidence in previous literature supported the notion that a tumor suppressor gene on 11q13, residing very close to but still distinct from MEN1, causes genetic susceptibility to pituitary tumors. The aim of the study was to identify the genetic cause of a low penetrance form of Pituitary Adenoma Predisposition (PAP) in families from Northern Finland. The present work describes the methodological approach that led to the identification of aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) as the gene causing PAP. Combining chip-based technologies (SNP and gene expression arrays) with traditional gene mapping methods and genealogy data, we showed that germline AIP mutations cause PAP in familial and sporadic settings. PAP patients were diagnosed with mostly adenomas of the GH/PRL-secreting cell lineage. In Finland, two AIP mutations accounted for 16% of all patients diagnosed with GH-secreting adenomas, and for 40% of patients being younger than 35 years of age at diagnosis. AIP is suggested to act as a tumor suppressor gene, a notion supported by the nature of the identified mutations (most are truncating) and the biallelic inactivation of AIP in the tumors studied. AIP has been best characterized as a cytoplasmic interaction partner of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), also known as dioxin receptor, but it has other partners as well. The mechanisms that underlie AIP-mediated pituitary tumorigenesis are to date largely unknown and warrant further investigation. Because AIP was identified in the genetically homogeneous Finnish population, it was relevant to examine its contribution to PAP in other, more heterogeneous, populations. Analysis of pituitary adenoma patient series of various ethnic origins and differing clinical settings revealed germline AIP mutations in all cohorts studied, albeit with low frequencies (range 0.8-7.4%). Overall, PAP patients were typically diagnosed at a young age (range 8-41 years), mainly with GH-secreting adenomas, without strong family history of endocrine disease. Because many PAP patients did not display family history of pituitary adenomas, detection of the condition appeared challenging. AIP immunohistochemistry was tested as a molecular pre-screening tool on mutation-positive versus mutation-negative tumors, and proved to be a potentially useful predictor of PAP. Mutation screening of a large cohort of colorectal, breast, and prostate tumors did not reveal somatic AIP mutations. These tumors, apart from being the most prevalent among men and women worldwide, have been associated with acromegaly, particularly colorectal neoplasia. In this material, AIP did not appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of these common tumor types and other genes seem likely to play a role in such tumorigenesis. Finally, the contribution of AIP in pediatric onset pituitary adenomas was examined in a unique population-based cohort of sporadic pituitary adenoma patients from Italy. Germline AIP mutations may account for a subset of pediatric onset GH-secreting adenomas (in this study one of seven GH-secreting adenoma cases or 14.3%), and appear to be enriched among young (≤25 years old) patients. In summary, this work reveals a novel tumor susceptibility gene, namely AIP, which causes genetic predisposition to pituitary adenomas, in particular GH-secreting adenomas. Moreover, it provides molecular tools for identification of individuals predisposed for PAP. Further elaborate studies addressing the functional role of AIP in normal and tumor cells will hopefully expand our knowledge on endocrine neoplasia and reveal novel cellular mechanisms of pituitary tumorigenesis, including potential drug targets. Ei saatavilla
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