Cold response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: New functions for old mechanisms. FEMS Microbiol Rev

Department of Biotechnology, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain.
FEMS Microbiology Reviews (Impact Factor: 13.24). 05/2007; 31(3):327-41. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2007.00066.x
Source: PubMed


The response of yeast cells to sudden temperature downshifts has received little attention compared with other stress conditions. Like other organisms, both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae a decrease in temperature induces the expression of many genes involved in transcription and translation, some of which display a cold-sensitivity phenotype. However, little is known about the role played by many cold-responsive genes, the sensing and regulatory mechanisms that control this response or the biochemical adaptations at or near 0 degrees C. This review focuses on the physiological significance of cold-shock responses, emphasizing the molecular mechanisms that generate and transmit cold signals. There is now enough experimental evidence to conclude that exposure to low temperature protects yeast cells against freeze injury through the cold-induced accumulation of trehalose, glycerol and heat-shock proteins. Recent results also show that changes in membrane fluidity are the primary signal triggering the cold-shock response. Notably, this signal is transduced and regulated through classical stress pathways and transcriptional factors, the high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and Msn2/4p. Alternative cold-stress generators and transducers will also be presented and discussed.

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Available from: Jaime Aguilera, Feb 13, 2015
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    • "It should also be recognized that cells respond to changes in growth temperature in ways other than by changes in membrane fatty acid composition, for example it is well documented that sterols influence membrane structure and function (Parks and Casey 1995; Daum et al. 1998; Sharma, 2006). Furthermore, the role of heat shock proteins, trehalose and glycerol in respect to yeast temperature adaptation, to both cold and heat, should also be taken into consideration (Tanghe et al. 2006; Aguilera et al. 2007). There have been very few published studies on temperature stress response in Antarctic yeasts and, although there have been some earlier reports on the synthesis of heat shock proteins in Antarctic yeasts (Deegenaars and Watson 1997, 1998) and in yeasts from the Arctic (Berg et al. 1987; Julseth and Inniss 1990), this is clearly an area that would provide valuable information in our understanding of mechanisms of temperature adaptation. "
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    ABSTRACT: The fatty acid profiles of Antarctic (n = 7) and non-Antarctic yeasts (n = 7) grown at different temperatures were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Antarctic yeasts were enriched in oleic 18:1 (20-60 %), linoleic 18:2 (20-50 %) and linolenic 18:3 (5-40 %) acids with lesser amounts of palmitic 16:0 (<15 %) and palmitoleic 16:1 (<10 %) acids. The non-Antarctic yeasts (n = 4) were enriched in 18:1 (20-55 %, with R. mucilaginosa at 75-80 %) and 18:2 (10-40 %) with lesser amounts of 16:0 (<20 %), 16:1 (<20 %) and stearic 18:0 (<10 %) acids. By contrast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (n = 3) were enriched in 16:1 (30-50 %) and 18:1 (20-40 %) with lesser amounts of 16:0 (10-25 %) and 18:0 (5-10 %) acids. Principal component analysis grouped the yeasts into three clusters, one belonging to the S. cerevisiae strains (enriched in 16:0, 16:1 and 18:1), one to the other non-Antarctic yeasts (enriched in 18:1 and 18:2) and the third to the Antarctic yeasts (enriched in 18:2 and 18:3).
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 05/2014; 106(2). DOI:10.1007/s10482-014-0183-7 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    • "Low temperature affects a variety of cellular processes in and the characteristics of S. cerevisiae. Previous studies have revealed that protein translational rates, cell membrane fluidity, RNA secondary structure stability, enzymatic activity, protein folding rates and heat-shock protein regulation are significantly affected (Schade et al. 2004; Aguilera et al. 2007; Tai et al. 2007; Pizarro et al. 2008). "
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    • "Industrial fermentation processes impose multiple stressful conditions (e.g., temperature, ethanol concentration, osmotic pressure and ionic stress) on yeast that affect its performance and kinetics during alcoholic fermentation (Fleet, 2008). Changes in temperature are by far the most studied stress inducers in living cells (Aguilera et al., 2007; Babiker et al., 2010). Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been chosen over the centuries because it is physiologically adapted to these unfavorable conditions (Attfield, 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: Sixty six indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were evaluated in stressful conditions (temperature, osmolarity, sulphite and ethanol tolerance) and also ability to flocculate. Eighteen strains showed tolerant characteristics to these stressful conditions, growing at 42 °C, in 0.04% sulphite, 1 mol L(-1) NaCl and 12% ethanol. No flocculent characteristics were observed. These strains were evaluated according to their fermentative performance in sugar cane juice. The conversion factors of substrates into ethanol (Y p/s), glycerol (Y g/s) and acetic acid (Y ac/s), were calculated. The highest values of Y p/s in sugar cane juice fermentation were obtained by four strains, one isolated from fruit (0.46) and the others from sugar cane (0.45, 0.44 and 0.43). These values were higher than the value obtained using traditional yeast (0.38) currently employed in the Brazilian bioethanol industry. The parameters Y g/s and Y ac/s were low for all strains. The UFLA FW221 presented the higher values for parameter related to bioethanol production. Thus, it was tested in co-culture with Lactobacillus fermentum. Besides this, a 20-L vessel for five consecutive batches of fermentation was performed. This strain was genetically stable and remained viable during all batches, producing high amounts of ethanol. The UFLA FW221 isolated from fruit was suitable to produce bioethanol in sugar cane juice. Therefore, the study of the biodiversity of yeasts from different environmental can reveal strains with desired characteristics to industrial applications.
    11/2013; 44(3):935-44. DOI:10.1590/S1517-83822013005000051
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