The 'cosmeceutical' agent 2-dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) is a tertiary amine found in high concentration in numerous topical antiwrinkle preparations.
We hypothesized that a 337 mmol L(-1) (3%) DMAE reservoir applied to the skin could reproduce the cytopathology induced by other amines by maintaining a millimolar drug concentration within a certain depth of the skin layers, and that vacuolar cell expansion could account for the very rapid effect on the apparent skin fullness.
Morphological and functional assays were applied to cultured rabbit dermal fibroblasts treated with tertiary amines in vitro. A morphological verification of the vacuolization caused by topical DMAE was also attempted in vivo using the inner skin of the rabbit ear and in vitro using primary cultures of human cutaneous epithelial cells.
Fibroblasts responded to DMAE (2.5-10 mmol L(-1)) by massive vacuolization (0.5-4 h; phase contrast observations). Triethanolamine, another chemical frequently used topically, was also active in this respect (10 mmol L(-1)). The vacuolar adenosine triphosphatase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 prevented DMAE- or triethanolamine-induced vacuolization; adding bafilomycin A1 or cell washout slowly reversed the established vacuolization induced by DMAE. Further effects of DMAE in cultured fibroblasts included a moderate cytotoxicity (10 mmol L(-1)) that was abated by bafilomycin A1 cotreatment, a concentration-dependent mitotic arrest (2.5 mmol L(-1)) and transient and mild effects on cell ploidy. The epidermis of the rabbit external ear was significantly thickened and exhibited clear perinuclear swelling indicative of vacuolization in response to 3% DMAE (1 h; paraffin tissue sections). Cultured human cutaneous epithelial cells responded to DMAE by vacuolization (inhibited by bafilomycin A1 cotreatment).
The vacuolar cytopathology induced by concentrated organic amines may be the cellular basis of the antiwrinkle effect of DMAE.
"The epidermis of rabbit external ear was also significantly thickened and exhibited clear perinuclear swelling indicative of vacuolization in response to topical application of 3% DMAE. It was suggested that vacuolar cytopathology may not be dissociable from the improvement of skin appearance that is rapidly produced by topically administered DMAE and could be the cellular basis of the antiwrinkle effect of DMAE [11, 12]. From our results, the vacuolization of the dermal fibroblast might occur in both 0.1% and 0.2% DMAE treated aging skin, resulting in cellular swelling and increased collagen fiber density. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A lasting dream of human beings is to reverse or postpone aging. In this study, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) and compound amino acid (AA) in Mesotherapy were investigated for their potential antiaging effects on D-galactose induced aging skin. At 18 days after D-gal induction, each rat was treated with intradermal microinjection of saline, AA, 0.1% DMAE, 0.2% DMAE, 0.1% DMAE + AA, or 0.2% DMAE + AA, respectively. At 42 days after treatment, the skin wound was harvested and assayed. Measurement of epidermal and dermal thickness in 0.1% DMAE + AA and 0.2% DMAE + AA groups appeared significantly thicker than aging control rats. No differences were found in tissue water content among groups. Hydroxyproline in 0.1% DMAE + AA, 0.2% DMAE + AA, and sham control groups was much higher than all other groups. Collagen type I, type III, and MMP-1 expression was highly upregulated in both 0.1% DMAE + AA and 0.2% DMAE + AA groups compared with aging control. In contrast, TIMP-1 expression levels of various aging groups were significantly reduced when compared to sham control. Coinjection of DMAE and AA into target tissue has marked antiaging effects on D-galactose induced skin aging model of rat.
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