IGF-1-induced processing of the amyloid precursor protein family is mediated by different signaling pathways.
ABSTRACT The mammalian amyloid precursor protein (APP) protein family consists of the APP and the amyloid precursor-like proteins 1 and 2 (APLP1 and APLP2). The neurotoxic amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) originates from APP, which is the only member of this protein family implicated in Alzheimer disease. However, the three homologous proteins have been proposed to be processed in similar ways and to have essential and overlapping functions. Therefore, it is also important to take into account the effects on the processing and function of the APP-like proteins in the development of therapeutic drugs aimed at decreasing the production of Abeta. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been shown to regulate APP processing and the levels of Abeta in the brain. In the present study, we show that IGF-1 increases alpha-secretase processing of endogenous APP and also increases ectodomain shedding of APLP1 and APLP2 in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We also investigated the role of different IGF-1-induced signaling pathways, using specific inhibitors for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Our results indicate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is involved in ectodomain shedding of APP and APLP1, but not APLP2, and that MAPK is involved only in the ectodomain shedding of APLP1.
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ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence indicates that loss of physiologic amyloid precursor protein (APP) function leads to reduced neuronal plasticity, diminished synaptic signaling and enhanced susceptibility of neurons to cellular stress during brain aging. Here we investigated the neuroprotective function of the soluble APP ectodomain sAPPα (soluble APPα), which is generated by cleavage of APP by α-secretase along the non-amyloidogenic pathway. Recombinant sAPPα protected primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from cell death induced by trophic factor deprivation. We show that this protective effect is abrogated in neurons from APP-knockout animals and APP-depleted SH-SY5Y cells, but not in APP-like protein 1- and 2- (APLP1 and APLP2) depleted cells, indicating that expression of membrane-bound holo-APP is required for sAPPα-dependent neuroprotection. Trophic factor deprivation diminished the activity of the Akt survival pathway. Strikingly, both recombinant sAPPα and the APP-E1 domain were able to stimulate Akt activity in wild-type (wt) fibroblasts, SH-SY5Y cells and neurons, but failed to rescue in APP-deficient neurons or fibroblasts. The ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10) inhibitor GI254023X exacerbated neuron death in organotypic (hippocampal) slice cultures of wt mice subjected to trophic factor and glucose deprivation. This cell death-enhancing effect of GI254023X could be completely rescued by applying exogenous sAPPα. Interestingly, sAPPα-dependent Akt induction was unaffected in neurons of APP-ΔCT15 mice that lack the C-terminal YENPTY motif of the APP intracellular region. In contrast, sAPPα-dependent rescue of Akt activation was completely abolished in APP mutant cells lacking the G-protein interaction motif located in the APP C-terminus and by blocking G-protein-dependent signaling with pertussis toxin. Collectively, our data provide new mechanistic insights into the physiologic role of APP in antagonizing neurotoxic stress: they suggest that cell surface APP mediates sAPPα-induced neuroprotection via G-protein-coupled activation of the Akt pathway.Cell Death & Disease 08/2014; 5:e1391. · 5.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is accumulating evidence for a pathogenetic link between sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). At subdiabetogenic doses, the cerebral administration of the diabetogenic substance streptozotocin (STZ) induces an insulin-resistant brain state (IRBS). The aim of the present pilot study was to investigate the effect of STZ on Alzheimer-like characteristics such as amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage secretases, betaA4 fragment, and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) in vitro. Different STZ concentrations (0-5 mM) and incubation intervals (0-48 h) were tested to find appropriate cell culture conditions for further biochemical analyses in human neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-MC). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was measured spectrophotometrically. Intracellular ATP was determined using bioluminescent luciferase assay. Secretase activity (alpha, beta, and gamma) was measured by employing commercial fluorometric secretase activity assay kits, betaA4 fragment by immunoprecipitation. Glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha/beta (total and phospho-GSK) content was assayed by ELISA technique. In vitro STZ administration (1 mM) induced a significant reduction in intracellular ATP concentration without pronounced cell death after 24 and 48 h as measured by LDH. Under these experimental conditions, a significant increase in beta-secretase and a significant drop in alpha-secretase were obtained, whereas gamma-secretase was not changed significantly. Simultaneously, the betaA4 concentration was increased by about threefold. Furthermore, STZ significantly increased total GSK and markedly decreased phospho-GSK. A direct link between STZ, intracellular ATP deficit, and Alzheimer-related enzymes was shown in this in vitro pilot study. Thus, these results support the hypothesis that sporadic AD is being recognized as an IRBS, which can be modulated by in vitro STZ model. Continuing investigations relating pathogenetic mechanisms and AD-like hallmarks are necessary to modulate different cascades of the IRBS using in vitro models.Journal of Neural Transmission 10/2014; · 2.87 Impact Factor