Emphysematous urinary tract infections: Diagnosis, treatment and survival - (Case review series)
ABSTRACT Emphysematous urinary tract infections are rare conditions, usually occurring in diabetic patients. Mortality rates in medically managed patients are reported to be as high as 70% to 90%. Growth of the diabetic population warrants heightened attention to these potentially fatal infections. We report a series of 5 cases with favorable outcomes.
All patients were diabetic. Presenting symptoms included fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. On physical examination, two patients had costovertebral angle tenderness; a third was dehydrated; a fourth had dehydration and an abdominal mass; and a fifth patient had suprapubic tenderness. All cases had leukocytosis and impaired renal function. Computed tomography (CT) scan disclosed emphysematous pyelonephritis in 3 cases (gas within renal parenchyma and/or perirenal tissue), emphysematous pyelitis in 1 case (gas in collecting system), and emphysematous cystitis in 1 patient (gas within bladder wall). Urine culture of 1 case grew Enterococci, whereas in the other cases cultures yielded gas-producing organisms. All patients received intravenous antibiotics. Two patients underwent CT-guided abscess drainage; 2 cases had J-stent placement, and one patient was readmitted with septic shock and underwent nephrectomy. All the patients' conditions improved and they were discharged.
Emphysematous urinary tract infections are usually caused by gas-producing organisms. They should be suspected in diabetic patients with urinary tract infections and worsening of renal function. CT scan is the method of choice for diagnosis and follow up. None of our patients died, mainly due to early diagnosis, sequential radiologic assessment, and timely surgical intervention when needed.
SourceAvailable from: Mohamed Mourad Gargouri[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Emphysematous cystitis (EC) is a rare, rapidly progressive infection characterized by gas formation within the bladder wall. Gas production is mainly due to fermentation of glucose or albumin by the pathogenic organisms. We present the case of a patient with EC who presented with severe sepsis of unknown origin. He was also found to have two vesical calculi and a horseshoe kidney. EC was diagnosed on ultrasonography which showed circumferential, acoustic shadowing around the bladder wall. Computed tomography (CT) confirmed the diagnosis. Rapid healing could be achieved with appropriate antibiotics and bladder drainage. Endoscopic disintegration of the stones was performed three weeks later, and follow-up was uneventful.African Journal of Urology 01/2015; 333. DOI:10.1016/j.afju.2014.11.001
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ABSTRACT: Emphysematous cystitis is a very rare complicated urinary tract infection characterized by air in the bladder wall. We report two clinical cases of emphysematous cystitis of an 83-year-old Caucasian woman with diabetes mellitus and a 78-year-old Caucasian man with no past medical history. They presented with severe confusion and abdominal distension. Emphysematous cystitis was diagnosed in time with a thorough physical examination, urine analysis and computed tomography. The patients were successfully treated with antibiotic therapy and bladder drainage. This rare disorder should be recognized in time and treated properly to guarantee survival.Journal of Medical Case Reports 12/2015; 9(1):530. DOI:10.1186/s13256-015-0530-y
Article: Emphysematous pyelonephritis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EP) is a rare clinical condition: an acute, necrotizing infection with formation of gas in the renal parenchyma, the collecting system and/or the perirenal space. Diabetics are clearly more prone to this type of pyelonephritis. However, cases have been described of recurrent EP in non-diabetic patients with urinary obstruction. In 69 to 97% of cases, the infectious agent implied is Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae. The impact of this disease on the morbidity and mortality of diabetic patients is very high. Therefore, knowledge of this condition enables early diagnosis and adequate treatment, with improved patient survival.Acta médica colombiana: AMC: organo de la Asociación Columbiana de Medicina Interna 09/2009; 34(3):132-135.