Efficacy of vitamin A in experimentally induced acute otitis media
ABSTRACT Vitamin A plays a role in the prevention of oxidative tissue damage. In the present study we investigated therapeutic role of this substance on healing of middle ear mucosa in experimental acute otitis media (AOM).
Otitis media was induced by inoculating Streptococcus pneumoniae via transtympanic injection. Thirty rats were divided into two groups. Group I treated with parenteral ampiciline-sulbactam. Group II received same antibiotic regimen and parenteral single dose of 100,000 IU vitamin A in palmitate form. At tenth day post-inoculation, animals were sacrificed and mucosal samples were excised from the infected tympanic cavities for histpathological examination and blood samples were obtained for measurements of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and evaluation of levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO).
All the infected middle ear mucosas displayed various degrees of the inflammation, but there was no meaningful difference between two groups. However, epithelial integrity was significantly better in group II than group I (p<0.01). While serum NO and MDA levels decreased in the group receiving both antibiotic and vitamin A, serum SOD and GSH activity were found to increased. All of the statistical differences are significant.
Pretreatment with vitamin A increases antioxidant enzyme activities and reduces formation of NO and MDA. Vitamin A may be considered as an additional medicament for the medical treatment of AOM.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective experimental animal study was to determine whether selenium had a protective effect on oxidative stress in rats with acute otitis media, by measuring the alterations of antioxidant parameters and lipid peroxidation on days 4 and 10 after inoculation into the middle ear. Streptococcus pneumoniae was inoculated into the middle ear cavities of 32 rats in animal laboratory of a tertiary medical center. Group 1 served as the control group and the animals were administered 1.5 ml/day saline. Group 2 received 0.2 mg/kg/day oral selenium for 10 days. The blood samples of each group were obtained on post-inoculation days 4 and 10. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, albumin, total sulphydryl, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were investigated. Day 10 level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in group 2 was lower than the day 4 level of the same substance in the control group. Although glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels significantly decreased starting from 4th day until 10th day in group 1, their levels increased in group 2. Day 10 levels of albumin and total sulphydryl in group 1 were significantly higher than day 4 levels in group 2. We found that selenium supplementation for 10 days decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increased glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels when compared to the control group. We believe that selenium supplementation may be beneficial to prevent the clinical sequelae and recurrence of otitis media.Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery 12/2013; 65. DOI:10.1007/s12070-011-0463-8 · 0.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether vitamin A supplementation administered in the preschool years can lower the risk of hearing loss in adolescence and adulthood. Follow-up study of adolescents and young adults who, as preschool aged children in 1989, were enrolled into a cluster randomised, double blinded, placebo controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation. South central, rural Nepal. 2378 adolescents and young adults aged 14 to 23, representing 51% of those who finished the original trial and 71% of those living in the study area in 2006. Every four months for 16 months preschool children were visited at home, given an oral 200,000 IU dose of vitamin A (half dose at age 1-11 months, quarter dose at <1 month) or placebo and the parents were queried about any childhood illnesses in the previous week, including purulent discharge from the ears. Prevalence of mild or worse hearing loss (≥ 30 dB) in the most affected ear and tympanometric measures of middle ear function (peak height, ear canal volume, and gradient). During the original trial, the prevalence of middle ear infection during the preschool years did not differ between the supplement groups. By adolescence and early adulthood, a non-significant 17% reduction in hearing loss occurred among those who had periodically received vitamin A compared with placebo as preschool aged children (odds ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.62 to 1.12). Among participants with any ear discharge in early childhood, vitamin A supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of hearing loss, by 42% (0.58, 0.37 to 0.92) compared with controls, after adjusting the confidence interval for the design effect of the original trial. Abnormal tympanometric peak height of the middle ear system was less likely among participants supplemented with vitamin A in childhood. In undernourished settings, periodic, high dose vitamin A supplementation may reduce the risk of hearing loss associated with purulent ear infections in early childhood.BMJ (online) 01/2012; 344:d7962. DOI:10.1136/bmj.d7962 · 16.38 Impact Factor