Inhibitory effects of tutin on glycine receptors in spinal neurons.

Department of Physiology, University of Concepcion, Chile.
European Journal of Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.59). 04/2007; 559(1):61-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.12.018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We studied the effects of tutin, a sesquiterpenoid obtained from Coriaria ruscifolia subspecie ruscifolia, a native poisonous Chilean plant, on spinal glycine receptors using patch clamp recordings. In addition, cytosolic Ca(2+) transients and activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were measured in the presence of tutin. Application of tutin (1-1000 microM) inhibited the glycinergic evoked current in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) spikes and spontaneous synaptic activity (AMPAergic events) was augmented and correlated with an increase in phosphorylated CREB levels, suggesting an enhancement in neuronal excitability. These results may explain the toxic effects of the plant characterized by seizures and convulsions with subsequent coma and death seen in humans and mice.

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    ABSTRACT: Seven homoserine-lactone (HL) acylated derivatives (HL1-HL7) were synthesized to determine the differences in antifeedant affects. The differences between these derivatives and tutin against Mythimna separata were tested. The structural assignments of these semisynthetic compounds were examined based on their infrared radiaion (IR), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS), and (1)H- and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C-NMR) spectral data. Compound HL1 (N-(4-nitrobenzoyl)-homoserinelactone) is the optimized insecticidal agent among these compounds. In addition, the antifeedant activities between homoserinelactone and 7-hydroxycoumarin, tutin derivatives with the same acidylated substitutions were compared, which could help design and synthesize stronger novel botanical insecticides.
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    ABSTRACT: The electrophysiological characterization of sesquiterpene lactones from Coriaria ruscifolia subsp. ruscifolia has been tested on hippocampal neurons. The results for glycinergic rat hippocampal transmission and native γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic transmission on neurons (13DIV) are remarkably different for tutin, coriamyrtin, and dihydrotutin, being tutin the most potent inhibitor and dihydrotutin the least potent one. To understand the applied mechanism of action, we discuss the structural and electronic requirements for inhibitory activity by these sesquiterpene lactones when modulating receptors of the central nervous system. The structural and electrostatic properties of these compounds were compared to those of more active metabolites like picrotoxins. The minimal energy level of these structures was calculated and then optimized at the ab initio B3LYP/DGDZVP level of theory using Gaussian 03W software. This allowed calculation of the corresponding vibrational circular dichroism spectrum of coriamyrtin which rendered the molecular absolute configuration after comparison with an experimental spectrum. These results are consistent with those from studies of other models that provide the basis for the activity on the presence of the lactone at carbons 3 and 5, the presence of the hydroxyl group at position 6, and the different electronic distributions observed in tutin and coriamyrtin. The latter has an isopropenyl moiety at carbon 4 in contrast to the dihydrotutin isopropyl group at the same position, which could explain the difference in activity between dihydrotutin and tutin or coriamyrtin. The presence of the hydroxyl group at carbon 2 is not decisive since this functionality is present in tutin, the most active compound, and in dihydrotutin, the less active one.
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last 150 years a number of people in New Zealand have been incapacitated, hospitalised, or died from eating honey contaminated with tutin, a plant-derived neurotoxin. A feature of the most recent poisoning incident in 2008 was the large variability in the onset time of clinical signs and symptoms of toxicity (0.5 to 17 h). To investigate the basis of this variability a pharmacokinetic study was undertaken in which 6 healthy males received a single oral dose of tutin-containing honey giving a tutin dose of 1.8μg/kg body weight. The serum concentration-time curve for all volunteers exhibited two discrete peaks with the second and higher level occurring at approximately 15 hours post-dose. Two subjects reported mild, transient headache at a time post-dose corresponding to maximum tutin concentrations. There were no other signs or symptoms typical of tutin intoxication such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness or seizures. Pharmacokinetic analysis using a two-site absorption model resulted in a good fit to the observed concentration data. A novel analytical method subsequently revealed the presence of glycoside conjugates of tutin in addition to unconjugated tutin in honey. These pharmacokinetic data will be important to better define a safe maximum tutin concentration in honey.
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