Seroprevalence of dengue in Trinidad using rapid test kits: A cord blood survey
Department of Biology, Smith College, Northampton, MA, USA. Acta Tropica
(Impact Factor: 2.27).
03/2007; 101(2):153-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2006.11.009
A cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence of dengue in Trinidad. Two commercial rapid test kits, PanBio Dengue Duo IgM and IgG Rapid Strip Test and the Bio-Check Plus Dengue G/M Cassette Test (Brittney) were used. The immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (FOCUS Technologies, California) was used as the control. One hundred and twenty five cord blood samples were collected (46 from Mt. Hope Women's Hospital (MH) and 79 from the San Fernando General Hospital (SF)). All blood samples were tested in accordance with the two rapid kits and ELISA assay manufacturer's instructions. From 125 cord blood samples, the IgG FOCUS ELISA results showed 93.5 and 95% infections at MH and SF, respectively. Whereas the Brittney and PanBio kits showed 10.9 and 5.1%, and 26.1 and 50.6% for MH and SF, respectively. Based on the FOCUS ELISA (control) assays, the combined seroprevalence rate from north and south Trinidad was 94.4%. IgG and IgM sensitivity and specificity levels were higher in the PanBio than Brittney test kits. The high seroprevalence rates observed in Trinidad are discussed to stimulate more research to explain this phenomenon and to prevent the Southeast Asian scenario from developing in the Americas.
Available from: Teresa Leslie
- "Immunological laboratory tests revealed that some immunological mechanisms in the pathogenesis of DHF/DSS may differ between Blacks and Whites and that these differences require further investigation (Sierra, et al., 2007). Lower morbidity and mortality does not suggest that dengue infection is not prevalent among African descendent populations ; rather, it suggests that a large percentage of individuals within that population are often asymptomatic or display mild/moderate symptoms (Halstead et al., 2001; Campbell et al., 2007). Among 210 Afro-Haitian children, laboratory tests determined that only four (1.9 percent) had not experienced past dengue infection. "
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ABSTRACT: An analysis of the dialogue surrounding historical and current dengue incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality reveals that race is defined as a risk factor influencing host immune response. African descendent populations in the Americas are often highlighted as having an innate resistance to severe dengue infection. This paper explores this hypothesis and, using a historical, epidemiological and immunological perspective, attempts to evaluate its viability. This multidisciplinary approach elucidates the need to proceed cautiously in any research searching for correlations between biological racial characteristics and disease. It emphasizes that the investigation of the hypothesized African descendent population dengue resistance be approached from the perspective of dengue while at the same time acknowledging variation within a population that has historically been oversimplified.
Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies 11/2011; 2011(3-pp. 283–309):283-309. DOI:10.1080/17442222.2011.617590
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ABSTRACT: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus is the most important flaviviral etiological agent affecting the CNS in Europe and Asia, where it has a significant impact on public health. Current laboratory diagnosis is based mainly on the detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by serological methods. However, recent developments in PCR methods could reveal that molecular diagnostics may play a more important role than previously described, especially for the early differential diagnosis of TBE. This review considers the recent developments in TBE diagnostics. The advantages and disadvantages of both serological and molecular methods are presented. Moreover, the results of quality control assessment studies for serological and PCR diagnosis of TBE infections are discussed, showing the need for some laboratories to improve their test systems with regards to sensitivity and specificity. Both diagnostic techniques will continue to be valuable approaches in clinical diagnosis and TBE research.
Future Virology 11/2007; 2(6-6):565-572. DOI:10.2217/174607220.127.116.115 · 1.01 Impact Factor
Available from: Dharmaratne Amarakoon
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ABSTRACT: The seasonality, patterns and the climate associations of the reported cases of dengue in the Caribbean were studied by analyzing
the annual and monthly variability of reported cases as well as those of climate parameters (temperature and precipitation).
More attention was given to Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, and Jamaica, as those countries contributed mostly to the reported
cases. The data were for the period 1980–2003. Results showed that the incidence of dengue in the Caribbean were higher in
the last decade (1990s) compared to that in the previous decade (1980s). The yearly patterns of dengue exhibited a well-defined
seasonality. The epidemics appeared to occur in the later half of the year following onset of rainfall and increasing temperature.
Analysis revealed that the association of the epidemics with temperature was stronger, especially in relation to the onset
of dengue, and the probability of epidemics was high during El Niño periods. In years with early warmer periods epidemics
appeared to occur early, which was a scenario more probable in the year after an El Niño (an El Niño+1year). Indices linked
to temperatures that are useful for gauging the potential for onset of dengue were examined. An index based on a moving average
temperature (MAT) appeared to be effective in gauging such potential and its average (AMAT) signals a threshold effect. MAT
index has potential use in adaptation and mitigation strategies.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 05/2008; 13(4):341-357. DOI:10.1007/s11027-007-9114-5 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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