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Sharpe, A.H., Wherry, E.J., Ahmed, R. & Freeman, G.J. The function of programmed cell death 1 and its ligands in regulating autoimmunity and infection. Nat. Immunol. 8, 239-245

Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Nature Immunology (Impact Factor: 24.97). 04/2007; 8(3):239-45. DOI: 10.1038/ni1443
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) surface receptor binds to two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. Studies have shown that PD-1-PD-L interactions control the induction and maintenance of peripheral T cell tolerance and indicate a previously unknown function for PD-L1 on nonhematopoietic cells in protecting tissues from autoimmune attack. PD-1 and its ligands have also been exploited by a variety of microorganisms to attenuate antimicrobial immunity and facilitate chronic infection. Here we examine the functions of PD-1 and its ligands in regulating antimicrobial and self-reactive T cell responses and discuss the therapeutic potential of manipulating this pathway.

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    The Journal of Microbiology 08/2015; 53(8):544-52. DOI:10.1007/s12275-015-5022-7 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Translational Medicine 09/2014; 12(1):217. DOI:10.1186/s12967-014-0217-y · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    • "Indeed helminths have been shown to induce immune suppression, primarily due to the ability of helminth antigens to drive the immune bias toward a Th2 type response [12], [18], [64]. Th2 responses activate or expand AAMs, which express various negative signaling accessory molecules that induce T cell anergy and downregulate the proliferation of activated T cells [18], [65], [66]. However, the cytokines produced in the CNS during M. corti infection are indicative of a mixed T helper response but with IL-4, IL-13 and IL-10 detected in relatively low amounts [27]. "
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    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101023. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101023 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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