Early decompressive surgery in malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: a pooled analysis of three randomised controlled trials.
ABSTRACT Malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is associated with an 80% mortality rate. Non-randomised studies have suggested that decompressive surgery reduces this mortality without increasing the number of severely disabled survivors. To obtain sufficient data as soon as possible to reliably estimate the effects of decompressive surgery, results from three European randomised controlled trials (DECIMAL, DESTINY, HAMLET) were pooled. The trials were ongoing when the pooled analysis was planned.
Individual data for patients aged between 18 years and 60 years, with space-occupying MCA infarction, included in one of the three trials, and treated within 48 h after stroke onset were pooled for analysis. The protocol was designed prospectively when the trials were still recruiting patients and outcomes were defined without knowledge of the results of the individual trials. The primary outcome measure was the score on the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 1 year dichotomised between favourable (0-4) and unfavourable (5 and death) outcome. Secondary outcome measures included case fatality rate at 1 year and a dichotomisation of the mRS between 0-3 and 4 to death. Data analysis was done by an independent data monitoring committee.
93 patients were included in the pooled analysis. More patients in the decompressive-surgery group than in the control group had an mRS<or=4 (75%vs 24%; pooled absolute risk reduction 51% [95% CI 34-69]), an mRS<or=3 (43%vs 21%; 23% [5-41]), and survived (78%vs 29%; 50% [33-67]), indicating numbers needed to treat of two for survival with mRS<or=4, four for survival with mRS<or=3, and two for survival irrespective of functional outcome. The effect of surgery was highly consistent across the three trials.
In patients with malignant MCA infarction, decompressive surgery undertaken within 48 h of stroke onset reduces mortality and increases the number of patients with a favourable functional outcome. The decision to perform decompressive surgery should, however, be made on an individual basis in every patient.
SourceAvailable from: Tonny Veenith[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Malignant middle cerebral artery infarcts occur in a small subset of patients with ischaemic strokes and lead to high levels of disability and mortality. Over the last ten years surgical interventions, in the form of decompressive craniectomies, have become more popular. There is insufficient evidence to support current medical treatments including mannitol, glycerol, steroids, hypertonic saline and therapeutic hypothermia. Whereas, several randomised controlled trials of early decompressive craniectomies in younger patients have shown a significant improvement in functional outcomes and mortality. Questions still need answering regarding the timing of this surgery, long-term survival benefits and age thresholds.
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ABSTRACT: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) involves the removal of a portion of the skull in the setting of life threatening brain edema or potentially uncontrollable intracranial pressures. Often performed on an emergent basis, evaluation and arrangement for DC should be swift and decisive. However, the evidence base for DC in the wide range of conditions for which it is currently performed is still developing. The procedure is associated with a number of complications and ethical considerations; thus, its place in contemporary practice remains controversial. While randomized trials conducted in the last decade have provided valuable data on the indications, eligibility criteria, and outcomes for DC in the treatment of traumatic brain injury and malignant middle cerebral artery infarction, important outstanding issues continue to complicate the decision to pursue DC on an individual case basis and in the number of other clinical settings presenting with brain edema and intracranial hypertension. In this review, we present the existing evidence and remaining questions regarding DC in various neurologic conditions including traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, encephalitis, and others. We also discuss perioperative considerations and ethical issues likely to be encountered by clinicians caring for patients and families who are considering or have undergone DC.Current Treatment Options in Neurology 02/2015; 17(2):330. DOI:10.1007/s11940-014-0330-5 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The timing of cranioplasty and method of bone flap storage are known risk factors of non-union and resorption of bone flaps. In this animal experimental study, we evaluated the efficacy of cranioplasty using frozen autologous bone flap, and examined whether the timing of cranioplasty after craniectomy affects bone fusion and new bone formation. Total 8 rabbits (male, older than 16 weeks) were divided into two groups of early cranioplasty group (EG, 4 rabbits) and delayed cranioplasty group (DG, 4 rabbits). The rabbits of each group were performed cranioplasty via frozen autologous bone flaps 4 weeks (EG) and 8 weeks (DG) after craniectomy. In order to obtain control data, the cranioplasty immediate after craniectomy were made on the contralateral cranial bone of the rabbits (control group, CG).The bone fusion and new bone formation were evaluated by micro-CT scan and histological examination 8 weeks after cranioplasty on both groups. In the micro-CT scans, the mean values of the volume and the surface of new bone were 50.13±7.18 mm(3) and 706.23±77.26 mm(2) in EG, 53.78±10.86 mm(3) and 726.60±170.99 mm(2) in DG, and 31.51±12.84 mm(3) and 436.65±132.24 mm(2) in CG. In the statistical results, significant differences were shown between EG and CG and between DG and CG (volume : p=0.028 and surface : p=0.008). The histological results confirmed new bone formation in all rabbits. We observed new bone formation on all the frozen autologous bone flaps that was stored within 8 weeks. The timing of cranioplasty may showed no difference of degree of new bone formation. Not only the healing period after cranioplasty but the time interval from craniectomy to cranioplasty could affect the new bone formation.Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 04/2015; 57(4):242-9. DOI:10.3340/jkns.2015.57.4.242 · 0.52 Impact Factor