Analysis of the Effects Diclofenac has on Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) Using Real-time PCR
National Research Laboratory on Environmental Biotechnology, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, South Korea.Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.34). 06/2007; 67(11):2115-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.12.090
The expression levels of cytochrome P450 1A, p53 and vitellogenin were investigated in three different tissues of male medaka fish after exposure to diclofenac that is one of the main concerns among pharmaceuticals frequently found in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents. The results showed that cytochrome P450 1A, p53 and vitellogenin were highly expressed in tissue-specific gene expression patterns after exposure to 8 mg/l and 1 microg/l of diclofenac. These elevated expression levels of three biomarkers suggested that diclofenac has potential to cause cellular toxicity, p53-related genotoxicity and estrogenic effects. It is also noteworthy that diclofenac has the potential to cause these effects even at an environmentally relevant concentration of diclofenac, 1 microg/l.
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- "Using data presented in multiple studies we reviewed, we analyzed the relationship between intersex prevalence from multiple fish families and contaminant data for a number chemicals for which these data were available using weighted regressions (weighted by sample size). We observed one positive relationship between the concentration of a xenobiotic, diclofenac; a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with endocrine-disrupting potential (Hong et al., 2007), and the prevalence of intersex (measured as the percentage of fish sampled with intersex lesions; R 2 = 39, P = 0.05, n = 10 studies), and one marginally significant negative relationship between dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) concentration and the prevalence of intersex (R 2 = 60, P = 0.07, n = 6 studies). We did not, however, observe a significant relationship between the prevalence of intersex and concentration of atrazine (R 2 = 20, P = 0.38, n = 6 studies), an estrogenic contaminant . "
ABSTRACT: Intersex is defined as the abnormal presence of both testicular and ovarian cells in gonads of gonochoristic animals. Its occurrence is widespread and reports on its presence in the gonads of vertebrates continues to increase. In this review, we use standardized terminology to summarize the current knowledge of intersex in gonochoristic fishes and amphibians. We describe the different indices that have been used to assess the severity of intersex and synthesize reports discussing the prevalence of intersex in relation to different types of pollutants. In addition, we evaluate the geographic distribution and chronology of the reported cases of intersex in fishes and amphibians, their pathological descriptions and severity and discuss species sensitivities. We also summarize molecular biomarkers that have been tested for early detection of intersex in wild populations and highlight additional biomarkers that target molecular pathways involved in gonadal development that require further investigation for use in the diagnosis of intersex. Finally, we discuss the needs for future research in this field. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Journal of Applied Toxicology 07/2015; 35(11). DOI:10.1002/jat.3204 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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- "The liver is the primary organ of detoxification of xenobiotics. Although, the intestine is the major organ of digestion and absorption, several biotransformation enzymes involved in detoxification and elimination are located in the fish intestine (Hong et al., 2007). 4.1. "
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of naproxen on the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in adult zebrafish. Surprisingly, after 2 weeks exposure no significant effect on the mRNA expression of the target genes was found in the liver. However, mRNA levels of three genes were altered significantly in the intestine. The expression of Ucp-2 decreased at the environmental concentration of 1μg/L while mRNA expression of GST p2 increased at the concentration of 100μg/L. The mRNA level for the antioxidant enzyme CAT was up-regulated significantly at both the concentrations used. Exposure to naproxen caused only moderate effects on the expression of antioxidant genes in the intestine rather than in the liver, which demonstrates that the intestine is more sensitive to waterborne naproxen exposure than the liver. Interestingly, the adverse side effects of NSAIDs occur in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has focused on transcriptional effects of naproxen on zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.07/2015; 40(2):343-348. DOI:10.1016/j.etap.2015.07.009
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- "NSAIDs induce both geno-and cytotoxicity on aquatic organisms such as Oryzias latipes, Dreissena polymorpha, Ruditapes philippinarum and Daphnia magna (Gómez-Oliván et al., 2013; Hong et al., 2007; Matozzo et al., 2012; Parolini et al., 2010). In addition, pharmaceutical effluents that contain analgesics have been shown to induce genotoxicity in Allium cepa and Swiss mice (Bakare et al., 2009; Oliveira-Júnior et al., 2013). "
ABSTRACT: The pharmaceutical industry generates wastewater discharges of varying characteristics and contaminant concentrations depending on the nature of the production process. The main chemicals present in these effluents are solvents, detergents, disinfectants - such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) - and pharmaceutical products, all of which are potentially ecotoxic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the geno- and cytotoxicity induced in the common carp Cyprinus carpio by the effluent emanating from a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-manufacturing plant. Carp were exposed to the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 0.1173%) for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h, and biomarkers of genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test) and cytotoxicity (caspase-3 activity and TUNEL assay) were evaluated. A significant increase with respect to the control group (p<0.05) occurred with all biomarkers from 24h on. Significant positive correlations were found between NSAID concentrations and biomarkers of geno- and cytotoxicity, as well as among geno- and cytotoxicity biomarkers. In conclusion, exposure to this industrial effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in blood of C. carpio. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Science of The Total Environment 05/2015; 530-531C:1-10. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.05.088 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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