Analysis of the effects diclofenac has on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using real-time PCR
ABSTRACT The expression levels of cytochrome P450 1A, p53 and vitellogenin were investigated in three different tissues of male medaka fish after exposure to diclofenac that is one of the main concerns among pharmaceuticals frequently found in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents. The results showed that cytochrome P450 1A, p53 and vitellogenin were highly expressed in tissue-specific gene expression patterns after exposure to 8 mg/l and 1 microg/l of diclofenac. These elevated expression levels of three biomarkers suggested that diclofenac has potential to cause cellular toxicity, p53-related genotoxicity and estrogenic effects. It is also noteworthy that diclofenac has the potential to cause these effects even at an environmentally relevant concentration of diclofenac, 1 microg/l.
SourceAvailable from: Jenni Prokkola[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pollution with low concentrations of pharmaceuticals, especially when combined with low-oxygen conditions (hypoxia), is a threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is commonly detected in wastewater effluents, and has potential to accumulate in the bile of fish. Diclofenac has been shown to activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which induces transcription in the metabolic enzyme cytochrome P450 1a (cyp1a). Previously, crosstalk has been shown to occur between AHR and hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). In addition, both of these transcription factors interact with the proteins regulating circadian (24-h) rhythms in vertebrates. Yet little is known about the significance of these interactions during simultaneous exposure to chemicals and hypoxia in fish in vivo. We exposed wild-caught three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to diclofenac (1 μg/L, 14 days), hypoxia (2.0 mg/L, up to 24 h) and the combination of both. We then analyzed markers of chemical biotransformation (EROD activity, cyp1a and ahr mRNA levels), glycolysis (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity, ldh and enolase 1a mRNA levels), and the transcription of core circadian clock genes clock and period 1 in liver tissue. Samples were taken at three time points during the light period in order to address disturbances in the circadian variation of metabolic processes. The results show that mRNA levels and LDH activity tended to be lowest before the dark period, but this pattern was disturbed by hypoxia and diclofenac. Diclofenac and hypoxia co-exposure induced EROD activity more strongly than diclofenac exposure alone, while cyp1a mRNA level was increased also by hypoxia and diclofenac alone. LDH activity and mRNA expression showed a clear time-dependent response during hypoxia, which is consistent with the previously suggested decreased accumulation of HIF-1 during the dark period. Furthermore, LDH activity and transcription was disturbed by diclofenac, indicating important effects of environmental pollutants in disturbing natural acclimation. This study demonstrates the need for more studies to understand the potential disturbances in endogenous rhythms caused by environmental pollution in natural populations. Full text available from http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1Q4Z7_,OE92DAFAquatic Toxicology 01/2015; 158(116):124. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.11.006 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Globally, pharmaceutical drugs namely Clofibric acid and Diclofenac are commonly detected in water•Aquatic contamination by pharmaceutical drugs is an important issue and emerging as a new environmental problem•We analyzed the toxicity of Clofibric acid and Diclofenac in an Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala•Both the drugs (1, 10 and 100 μg L-l) induced alterations in the thyroid hormones•This parameters could be used as biomarkers for pharmaceutical toxicity to fishEnvironmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.etap.2014.10.013 · 1.86 Impact Factor