Arsenic and diabetes and hypertension in human populations: A review

Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.63). 09/2007; 222(3):298-304. DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2006.12.032
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Long-term exposure to ingested arsenic from drinking water has been well documented to be associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in a dose-response relationship among residents of arseniasis-endemic areas in southwestern Taiwan and Bangladesh. An increased risk of self-reported hypertension but not diabetes was reported in a community-based study of residents who consumed drinking water with a low level of arsenic. Increased glycosylated hemoglobin level and systolic blood pressure were observed in workers occupationally exposed to arsenic. Inconsistent findings of arsenic and diabetes in occupational studies may result from the healthy worker effect and the variation in exposure measurement, age composition, number of patients, accuracy in diagnosis and classification of underlying causes of death, competing causes of death, and method to detect diabetes. The dose-response relationship and toxicological mechanisms of arsenic-induced diabetes and hypertension need further elucidation.

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Available from: Shu-Li Wang, Aug 18, 2015
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    • "Our findings support research of arsenic association with DM from Taiwan and Bangladesh where arsenic concentrations can be up to 100 times greater (Lai et al., 1994; Tseng et al., 2000; Rahman et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2003; Chen et al., 2007) and also recent research in areas with low to moderate exposure (Navas- Acien et al., 2008; Del Razo et al., 2011; Jovanovic et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Consumption of drinking water with high levels of inorganic arsenic (over 500μg/L) has been associated with type II diabetes mellitus (DM), but previous studies have been inconclusive about risks at lower levels (<100μg/L). We present a case-cohort study based on individual estimates of lifetime arsenic exposure to examine the relationship between chronic low-level arsenic exposure and risk of DM. METHODS: This case-cohort study included 141 cases of DM diagnosed between 1984 and 1998 as part of the prospective San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. A comparison sub-cohort of 488 participants was randomly sampled from 936 eligible participants who were disease free at baseline. Individual lifetime arsenic exposure estimates were determined using a methodology that incorporates the use of a structured interview to determine lifetime residence and employment history, geospatial modeling of arsenic concentrations in drinking water, and urine arsenic concentrations. A Cox proportional hazards model with known DM risk factors as time-dependent covariates was used to assess the association between lifetime exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water and incident DM. RESULTS: Our findings show a significant association between inorganic arsenic exposure and DM risk (hazard ratio [HR]=1.27, 95%=1.01, 1.59 per 15μg/L) while adjusting for ethnicity and time varying covariates age, body mass index and physical activity level. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to low-level inorganic arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased risk for type II DM in this population based on a comprehensive lifetime exposure assessment.
    Environmental Research 03/2013; 123. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2013.02.005 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    • "Childhood liver cancer MRRs were 9–14 times higher for those exposed as young children as compared with controls (Liaw et al. 2008). Other reports of latency periods extending over 50 years include skin cancer (Haque et al. 2003), urinary cancers (Bates et al. 2004; Chen CL et al. 2010b; Marshall et al. 2007; Su et al. 2011), and lung cancer (Marshall et al. 2007; Su et al. 2011). For example, peak SMRs for childhood liver cancer and bronchiectasis were 14.1 and 50.1 times higher, respectively, for individuals exposed to arsenic in utero and during childhood as compared with individuals exposed during other periods of their lives (Table 4) (Smith et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Concerns for arsenic exposure are not limited to toxic waste sites and massive poisoning events. Chronic exposure continues to be a major public health problem worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of persons. Objectives: We reviewed recent information on worldwide concerns for arsenic exposures and public health to heighten awareness of the current scope of arsenic exposure and health outcomes and the importance of reducing exposure, particularly during pregnancy and early life. Methods: We synthesized the large body of current research pertaining to arsenic exposure and health outcomes with an emphasis on recent publications. Discussion: Locations of high arsenic exposure via drinking water span from Bangladesh, Chile, and Taiwan to the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water is 10 µg/L; however, concentrations of > 3,000 µg/L have been found in wells in the United States. In addition, exposure through diet is of growing concern. Knowledge of the scope of arsenic-associated health effects has broadened; arsenic leaves essentially no bodily system untouched. Arsenic is a known carcinogen associated with skin, lung, bladder, kidney, and liver cancer. Dermatological, developmental, neurological, respiratory, cardiovascular, immunological, and endocrine effects are also evident. Most remarkably, early-life exposure may be related to increased risks for several types of cancer and other diseases during adulthood. Conclusions: These data call for heightened awareness of arsenic-related pathologies in broader contexts than previously perceived. Testing foods and drinking water for arsenic, including individual private wells, should be a top priority to reduce exposure, particularly for pregnant women and children, given the potential for life-long effects of developmental exposure.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 03/2013; 121(3):295-302. DOI:10.1289/ehp.1205875 · 7.03 Impact Factor
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    • "The different studies carried out in different ethnic groups during different study periods have shown an association between arsenic exposure and the occurrence of diabetes mellitus (Chen et al., 2007; Navas-Acien et al., 2008). The potential biological mechanism of arsenic induced diabetes is not well understood and needs to be explored. "
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    ABSTRACT: Arsenic, a potent environmental toxicant has been reported to induce diabetes mellitus, but its potential biological mechanism(s) has not been much investigated. The present study was designed to correlate pancreatic and hepatic oxidative stress with arsenic induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals. Male albino Wistar rats were administered with low (1.5 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) and high (5.0 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) sodium arsenite orally for 4 week. Hyperglycemic condition was observed in arsenic exposed groups as indicated by increased (P < 0.001) fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), which were accompanied by an increase in the level of lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001), protein oxidation (P < 0.05 at low dose and P < 0.001 at high dose) and nitric oxide (NO) (P < 0.001) in hepatic and pancreatic tissue compared to control. Furthermore, superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P < 0.001), catalase (CAT) (P < 0.001) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P < 0.05 at low dose and P < 0.001 at high dose) activities were elevated, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (P < 0.05 at low dose and P < 0.001 at high dose) and GSH level showed significant (P < 0.001) depletion in both studied tissue of arsenic exposed rats compared to control. Arsenic induced hepatotoxicity was manifested by an increase (P < 0.001) in serum ALT, AST and ALP. Arsenic exposure leads to accumulation of arsenic (P < 0.05) and significant (P < 0.05) depletion of copper and zinc level in hepatic and pancreatic tissue as compared to control. Our data suggests that sub-chronic arsenic exposure induces diabetic condition which may be mediated due to increased oxidative stress in hepatic and pancreatic tissue.
    Journal of Environmental Biology 03/2013; 34(2):231-6. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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