AMP-activated protein kinase in metabolic control and insulin signaling

Division of Molecular Physiology, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, UK.
Circulation Research (Impact Factor: 11.09). 03/2007; 100(3):328-41. DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000256090.42690.05
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status that is conserved in all eukaryotic cells. It is activated by increases in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio caused by metabolic stresses that either interfere with ATP production (eg, deprivation for glucose or oxygen) or that accelerate ATP consumption (eg, muscle contraction). Activation in response to increases in AMP involves phosphorylation by an upstream kinase, the tumor suppressor LKB1. In certain cells (eg, neurones, endothelial cells, and lymphocytes), AMPK can also be activated by a Ca(2+)-dependent and AMP-independent process involving phosphorylation by an alternate upstream kinase, CaMKKbeta. Once activated, AMPK switches on catabolic pathways that generate ATP, while switching off ATP-consuming processes such as biosynthesis and cell growth and proliferation. The AMPK complex contains 3 subunits, with the alpha subunit being catalytic, the beta subunit containing a glycogen-sensing domain, and the gamma subunits containing 2 regulatory sites that bind the activating and inhibitory nucleotides AMP and ATP. Although it may have evolved to respond to metabolic stress at the cellular level, hormones and cytokines such as insulin, leptin, and adiponectin can interact with the system, and it now appears to play a key role in maintaining energy balance at the whole body level. The AMPK system may be partly responsible for the health benefits of exercise and is the target for the antidiabetic drug metformin. It is a key player in the development of new treatments for obesity, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome.

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    ABSTRACT: Context: Polyphenol-rich marine macroalgae are gaining dietary importance due to their influence over diabetes mellitus and the role as a vital source of high-value nutraceuticals. Their assorted beneficial effects on human health include competitive inhibition of digestive enzymes, varying the activity of hepatic glucose-metabolizing enzymes, lowering the plasma glucose levels, and lipid peroxidation, delaying the aging process. Objective: In this paper, we review the health beneficial effects of polyphenols and phlorotannins from brown seaweeds with special emphasis on their inhibitory effects on carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. Methods: A survey of literature from databases such as Sciencedirect, Scopus, Pubmed, Springerlink, and Google Scholar from the year 1973 to 2013 was done to bring together the information relating to drug discovery from brown seaweeds as a source for diabetes treatment. Results: Over the past two decades, 20 different bioactive polyphenols/phlorotannins have been isolated and studied from 10 different brown algae. Discussion of the positive effect on the inhibition of enzymes metabolizing carbohydrates in both in vitro and in vivo experiments are included. Conclusion: Despite the recent advancements in isolating bioactive compounds from seaweeds with potential health benefit or pharmaceutical behavior, studies on the polyphenol effectiveness on glucose homeostasis in human beings are very few in response to their functional characterization. Added research in this area is required to confirm the close connection of polyphenol rich seaweed-based diet consumption with glucose homeostasis and the exciting possibility of prescribing polyphenols to treat the diabetes pandemic.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.959615 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gq/11-coupled muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) belonging to M1, M3 and M5 subtypes have been shown to activate the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β (CaMKKβ)-mediated phosphorylation at Thr172. However, the source of Ca(2+) required for this response has not been yet elucidated. Here, we investigated the involvement of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) in AMPK activation by pharmacologically defined M3 mAChRs in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In Ca(2+)-free medium the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) caused a transient increase of phospho-Thr172 AMPK that rapidly ceased within 2min. Conversely, in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) CCh-induced AMPK phosphorylation lasted for at least 180min. The SOCE modulator 2-aminoethoxydiphephenyl borate (2-APB), at a concentration (50μM) that suppressed CCh-induced intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) plateau, inhibited CCh-induced AMPK phosphorylation. CCh triggered the activation of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) sensor stromal interaction molecule (STIM)1, as indicated by redistribution of STIM1 inmmunofluorescence into puncta, and promoted the association of STIM1 with the SOCE channel component Orai1. Cell depletion of STIM1 by siRNA treatment reduced both CCh-induced [Ca(2+)]i plateau and AMPK activation. M3 mAChRs increased glucose uptake and this response required extracellular Ca(2+) and was inhibited by 2-APB, STIM1 knockdown, CaMKKβ and AMPK inhibitors, and adenovirus infection with dominant negative AMPK. Thus, the study provides evidence that SOCE is required for sustained activation of AMPK and stimulation of downstream glucose uptake by M3 mAChRs and suggests that SOCE is a critical process connecting M3 mAChRs to the control of neuronal energy metabolism.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 09/2014; 1843(12). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2014.09.012 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In our efforts to develop safe and active chemical entities from nature, we first identified poliothrysoside (1), a phytoconstituent isolated from Flacourtia indica, possessing antidiabetic potential. Subsequently, fifteen derivatives (2-16) were synthesized to assess the activity profile of this class. All the compounds were analyzed for their glucose uptake potency in chronic insulin-induced insulin resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Interestingly, compound 2 exhibited strong ability to increase the insulin sensitivity, primarily activating the AMPK signaling pathway and also inhibited the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in concentration dependent manner. Overall, these studies suggest the potential of poliothrysoside and its derivatives as promising leads for non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes (T2D).
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2014; 86C:570-577. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.09.015 · 3.43 Impact Factor



Mhairi Towler