Pneumocystis stimulates MCP-1 production by alveolar epithelial cells through a JNK-dependent mechanism

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.08). 07/2007; 292(6):L1495-505. DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00452.2006
Source: PubMed


Pneumocystis carinii is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised individuals. Recent studies have demonstrated that the host's immune response is clearly responsible for the majority of the pathophysiological changes associated with PCP. P. carinii interacts closely with alveolar epithelial cells (AECs); however, the nature and pathological consequences of the epithelial response remain poorly defined. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is involved in lung inflammation, immunity, and epithelial repair and is upregulated during PCP. To determine whether AECs are an important source of MCP-1 in the P. carinii-infected lung, in vivo and in vitro studies were performed. In situ hybridization showed that MCP-1 mRNA was localized to cells with morphological characteristics of AECs in the lungs of infected mice. In vitro studies demonstrated that P. carinii stimulated a time- and dose-dependent MCP-1 response in primary murine type II cells that was preceded by JNK activation. Pharmacological inhibition of JNK nearly abolished P. carinii-stimulated MCP-1 production, while ERK, p38 MAPK, and TNF receptor signaling were not required. Furthermore, delivery of a JNK inhibitory peptide specifically to pulmonary epithelial cells using a recombinant adenovirus vector blocked the early lung MCP-1 response following intratracheal instillation of infectious P. carinii. JNK inhibition did not affect P. carinii-stimulated production of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in vitro or in vivo, indicating that multiple signaling pathways are activated in P. carinii-stimulated AECs. These data demonstrate that AECs respond to P. carinii in a proinflammatory manner that may contribute to the generation of immune-mediated lung injury.

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    • "ISOLATION OF FETAL LUNG TYPE II AECS AND TREATMENT WITH HYPOXIA AND LEPTIN Type II AECs were isolated and cultured with a specific immunosorption procedure, as described previously [Wang et al., 2007]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) increases the risk of perinatal death, partly due to defects in lung development. Leptin, a polypeptide hormone, is involved in fetal lung development. We previously demonstrated that treatment with exogenous leptin during gestation significantly promotes fetal lung maturity in the rat model of FGR. In this study, to delineate the molecular pathways through which leptin may enhance fetal lung development, we investigated the impact of leptin treatment on the survival of type II alveolar epithelial cells(AECs), essential leptin-responsive cells involved in lung development, in a rat model of FGR. The rat model of FGR was induced in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats by partial uterine artery and vein ligation. In vivo and in vitro analyses of fetal lung tissues and freshly-isolated cultured AECs, respectively, showed that leptin protects type II AECs from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Further molecular studies revealed the role of Akt activation in the leptin-mediated promotion of survival of type II AECs. The data also showed that the anti-apoptotic effects of leptin are dependent on phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation, and involve the down-regulation of caspases 3 and 9, upregulation of pro-survival proteins Bcl-2 and p-Bad, and inhibition of the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Taken together, our data suggested that leptin enhances the maturity of fetal lungs by mediating the regulation of caspase-3 and -9 during hypoxia-induced apoptosis of type II AECs and provide support for the potential of leptin as a therapeutic agent for promoting lung development in FGR. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 04/2015; 116(10). DOI:10.1002/jcb.25182 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    • "The stress activated protein kinase (SAPK) c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is another protein kinase that is activated in response to environmental stress. In addition to its contribution to cellular differentiation and apoptosis, activated JNK is involved in inducing the production of inflammatory cytokines [20], [21], [56]. JNK phosphorylation also showed different kinetics between HRV16 and HRV1A. "
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    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e93897. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0093897 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In this manner JNK1 plays an important role in transcriptional regulation in response to a number of stimuli. JNK1 is activated by the gram-negative bacterial component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via TLR4 [8]–[9] and JNK1 is required for chemokine production by macrophages [10]–[11]. These data suggest an important role for JNK1 in innate immune responses. "
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    ABSTRACT: The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) - 1 pathway has been implicated in the cellular response to stress in many tissues and models. JNK1 is known to play a role in a variety of signaling cascades, including those involved in lung disease pathogenesis. Recently, a role for JNK1 signaling in immune cell function has emerged. The goal of the present study was to determine the role of JNK1 in host defense against both bacterial and viral pneumonia, as well as the impact of JNK1 signaling on IL-17 mediated immunity. Wild type (WT) and JNK1 -/- mice were challenged with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or Influenza A. In addition, WT and JNK1 -/- mice and epithelial cells were stimulated with IL-17A. The impact of JNK1 deletion on pathogen clearance, inflammation, and histopathology was assessed. JNK1 was required for clearance of E. coli, inflammatory cell recruitment, and cytokine production. Interestingly, JNK1 deletion had only a small impact on the host response to S. aureus. JNK1 -/- mice had decreased Influenza A burden in viral pneumonia, yet displayed worsened morbidity. Finally, JNK1 was required for IL-17A mediated induction of inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides both in epithelial cells and the lung. These data identify JNK1 as an important signaling molecule in host defense and demonstrate a pathogen specific role in disease. Manipulation of the JNK1 pathway may represent a novel therapeutic target in pneumonia.
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