Recurrence after total thyroidectomy for benign multinodular goiter
ABSTRACT Total thyroidectomy is now the preferred option for the management of benign multinodular goiter (BMNG), and it ought not be associated with recurrent disease. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of total thyroidectomy for BMNG and to review reasons for recurrence.
The study group comprised all patients from January 1980 to December 2005 who underwent a definitive procedure to remove all thyroid tissue for BMNG, and who were subsequently identified as having developed a recurrence. Included were patients who underwent primary total thyroidectomy at our unit, or a two or more stage procedure where a definitive secondary total thyroidectomy was performed at our unit.
There were 3,044 total or secondary total thyroidectomies performed for BMNG during the study period. Ten patients were identified as having developed recurrent BMNG requiring reoperation despite previous complete "total" thyroidectomy. There were 11 sites of recurrence in 10 patients. Only one was a true local recurrence in the thyroid bed. Another 9 recurrences related to the embryology of the thyroid gland, 4 in the pyramidal tract and 5 in the thyrothymic tract. There was one recurrence at another site (submandibular) in a patient with presumed metastatic thyroid cancer despite benign histology. There were no complications in any of the 10 patients.
Total thyroidectomy for BMNG is not only a safe procedure but is efficacious in preventing recurrent disease. Failure to remove embryological remnants such as thyrothymic residue or pyramidal remnants during total thyroidectomy is the major cause of recurrence.
SourceAvailable from: Ranil Fernando[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Thyroid gland has three main embryological remnants: pyrami dal lobe, tubercle of Zuckerkandl and thyrothymic remnants. They are commonly missed or misidentified during dissection. Each of these remnants plays a critical role in thyroidectomy as they help to identify the relevant anatomy and therefore help prevent accidental damage to other structures in close proximity during dissection. In this article, we describe the current knowledge of each of these remnants and their significance in thyroidectomy. Conclusion: It is important that all these remnants are objec tively looked for and removed during surgery in order to prevent recurrences.12/2014; 6. DOI:10.5005/jp-journals-10002-1149
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ABSTRACT: In 2006, a 58-year-old woman presented with thyrotoxicosis. She had undergone left hemithyroidectomy 14 years before for a benign follicular adenoma. Ultrasound imaging demonstrated bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy with enhanced tracer uptake in the left lateral neck on a Technetium-99m uptake scan. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of a left lateral neck node was insufficient for a cytological diagnosis; however, thyroglobulin (Tg) washings were strongly positive. The clinical suspicion was of functionally active metastatic thyroid cancer in cervical lymph nodes. A completion thyroidectomy and bilateral cervical lymph node dissection were performed. Histology demonstrated benign multinodularity in the right hemithyroid, with bilateral reactive lymphadenopathy and 24 benign hyperplastic thyroid nodules in the left lateral neck that were classified as parasitic thyroid nodules. As there had been a clinical suspicion of thyroid cancer, and the hyperplastic/parasitic thyroid tissue in the neck was extensive, the patient was given ablative radioactive iodine (3.7 GBq). After 2 years, a diagnostic radioactive iodine scan was clear and the serum Tg was undetectable. The patient has now been followed for 7 years with no evidence of recurrence. Archived tissue from a left lateral neck thyroid nodule has recently been analysed for BRAF V600E mutation, which was negative.05/2014; 2014:140027. DOI:10.1530/EDM-14-0027
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ABSTRACT: The tubercle of Zuckerkandl (ZT) is an embryological remnant of the thyroid gland. Its close relationship to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) makes it an important surgical landmark. Presence and size of the ZT was prospectively assessed during thyroidectomies done at a single surgical unit during 2013. Eighty patients were included in the study. Closest distance and relationship of the ZT to the RLN was measured. Median age was 48 years (range 20-75 years). The ZT was present in 72 (90%) patients at least on one side and 55 (69%) patients on both sides. Grade III tubercles were found in 17 (21.25%) patients. Average distance between RLN and the ZT was 1.2 mm posteriorly or posteromedially. In the majority (79%) RLN was lying at a distance of ≤1mm. Pressure symptoms were present in 19 (23.75%) patients and it was not related to the presence of grade III tubercles (p = 0.207). Ceylon Medical Journal 2015; 60: 23-24Ceylon Medical Journal 03/2015; Vol 60,(No 1 (2015)):23-24. DOI:10.4038/cmj.v60i1.7141