Calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and the receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) comprise a receptor for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Although CGRP induces endocytosis of CLR/RAMP1, little is known about post-endocytic sorting of these proteins. We observed that the duration of stimulation with CGRP markedly affected post-endocytic sorting of CLR/RAMP1. In HEK and SK-N-MC cells, transient stimulation (10(-7) M CGRP, 1 h), induced CLR/RAMP1 recycling with similar kinetics (2-6 h), demonstrated by labeling receptors in living cells with antibodies to extracellular epitopes. Recycling of CLR/RAMP1 correlated with resensitization of CGRP-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i). Cycloheximide did not affect resensitization, but bafilomycin A(1), an inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases, abolished resensitization. Recycling CLR and RAMP1 were detected in endosomes containing Rab4a and Rab11a, and expression of GTPase-defective Rab4aS22N and Rab11aS25N inhibited resensitization. After sustained stimulation (10(-7) M CGRP, >2 h), CLR/RAMP1 trafficked to lysosomes. RAMP1 was degraded approximately 4-fold more rapidly than CLR (RAMP1, 45% degradation, 5 h; CLR, 54% degradation, 16 h), determined by Western blotting. Inhibitors of lysosomal, but not proteasomal, proteases prevented degradation. Sustained stimulation did not induce detectable mono- or polyubiquitination of CLR or RAMP1, determined by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Moreover, a RAMP1 mutant lacking the only intracellular lysine (RAMP1K142R) internalized and was degraded normally. Thus, after transient stimulation with CGRP, CLR and RAMP1 traffic from endosomes to the plasma membrane, which mediates resensitization. After sustained stimulation, CLR and RAMP1 traffic from endosomes to lysosomes by ubiquitin-independent mechanisms, where they are degraded at different rates.
"Thus, ECE-1 is expressed in RMA- SMCs, which also express mRNA transcripts for CLR and RAMP1. Therefore, if CGRP internalizes to endosomes with CLR@BULLETRAMP1, as observed in transfected HEK cells (Cottrell et al., 2007; Padilla et al., 2007), ECE-1 would be appropriately localized to degrade CGRP. In support of this finding, ECE-1-immunoreactivity has been detected in many types of human SMCs (Barnes and Turner, 1999; Granchi et al., 2002; Jackson et al., 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent vasodilator, implicated in the pathogenesis of migraine. CGRP activates a receptor complex comprising, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). In vitro studies indicate recycling of CLR●RAMP1 is regulated by degradation of CGRP in early endosomes by endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1). However, it is not known if ECE-1 regulates the resensitization of CGRP-induced responses in functional arterial tissue.
CLR, ECE-1a-d and RAMP1 expression in rat mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells (RMA-SMCs) and mesenteric arteries was analysed by RT-PCR and by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. CGRP-induced signalling in cells was examined by measuring cAMP production and ERK activation. CGRP-induced relaxation of arteries was measured by isometric wire myography. ECE-1 was inhibited using the specific inhibitor, SM-19712.
RMA-SMCs and arteries contained mRNA for CLR, ECE-1a-d and RAMP1. ECE-1 was present in early endosomes of RMA-SMCs and in the smooth muscle layer of arteries. CGRP induced endothelium-independent relaxation of arteries. ECE-1 inhibition had no effect on initial CGRP-induced responses but reduced cAMP generation in RMA-SMCs and vasodilation in mesenteric arteries responses to subsequent CGRP challenges.
Conclusions and implications:
ECE-1 regulated the resensitization of responses to CGRP in RMA-SMCs and mesenteric arteries. CGRP-induced relaxation did not involve endothelium-derived pathways. This is the first report of ECE-1 regulating CGRP responses in SMCs and arteries. ECE-1 inhibitors may attenuate an important vasodilatory pathway, implicated in primary headaches and may represent a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of migraine.
British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2012; 167(8). DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02129.x · 4.84 Impact Factor
"To exclude this possibility we examined the effects of bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of vacuolar-type H+-ATPases, on CXCR7 recycling. It has previously been shown that endosomal acidification promotes dissociation of ligand from GPCRs, and that inhibitors of such acidification prevent receptor recycling and resensitization , . As shown in Fig. 3D, incubation of CXCR7 expressing cells with 1 µM bafilomycin A1 did not affect CXCR7 internalization after 45 min of CXCL12 stimulation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemokine receptor CXCR7 binds CXCL11 and CXCL12 with high affinity, chemokines that were previously thought to bind exclusively to CXCR4 and CXCR3, respectively. Expression of CXCR7 has been associated with cardiac development as well as with tumor growth and progression. Despite having all the canonical features of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the signalling pathways following CXCR7 activation remain controversial, since unlike typical chemokine receptors, CXCR7 fails to activate Gα(i)-proteins. CXCR7 has recently been shown to interact with β-arrestins and such interaction has been suggested to be responsible for G protein-independent signals through ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. Signal transduction by CXCR7 is controlled at the membrane by the process of GPCR trafficking. In the present study we investigated the regulatory processes triggered by CXCR7 activation as well as the molecular interactions that participate in such processes. We show that, CXCR7 internalizes and recycles back to the cell surface after agonist exposure, and that internalization is not only β-arrestin-mediated but also dependent on the Serine/Threonine residues at the C-terminus of the receptor. Furthermore we describe, for the first time, the constitutive ubiquitination of CXCR7. Such ubiquitination is a key modification responsible for the correct trafficking of CXCR7 from and to the plasma membrane. Moreover, we found that CXCR7 is reversibly de-ubiquitinated upon treatment with CXCL12. Finally, we have also identified the Lysine residues at the C-terminus of CXCR7 to be essential for receptor cell surface delivery. Together these data demonstrate the differential regulation of CXCR7 compared to the related CXCR3 and CXCR4 receptors, and highlight the importance of understanding the molecular determinants responsible for this process.
PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e34192. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0034192 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"The only mammalian GPCR known to be trafficked via an ESCRT-dependent pathway is CXCR 4 , where the sorting is dependent on a component of the ESCRT-II complex, EAP30 . Of note, not all of the receptors that rely on Hrs for trafficking are ubiquitinated, since both the -OR and CLR@BULLETRAMP1 are trafficked to lysosomes via an ubiquitinindependent pathway  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are expressed throughout the nervous system where they regulate multiple physiological processes, participate in neurological diseases, and are major targets for therapy. Given that many GPCRs respond to neurotransmitters and hormones that are present in the extracellular fluid and which do not readily cross the plasma membrane, receptor trafficking to and from the plasma membrane is a critically important determinant of cellular responsiveness. Moreover, trafficking of GPCRs throughout the endosomal system can initiate signaling events that are mechanistically and functionally distinct from those operating at the plasma membrane. This review discusses recent advances in the relationship between signaling and trafficking of GPCRs in the nervous system. It summarizes how receptor modifications influence trafficking, discusses mechanisms that regulate GPCR trafficking to and from the plasma membrane, reviews the relationship between trafficking and signaling, and considers the implications of GPCR trafficking to drug development.
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