Post-endocytic sorting of calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein 1.
ABSTRACT Calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and the receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) comprise a receptor for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Although CGRP induces endocytosis of CLR/RAMP1, little is known about post-endocytic sorting of these proteins. We observed that the duration of stimulation with CGRP markedly affected post-endocytic sorting of CLR/RAMP1. In HEK and SK-N-MC cells, transient stimulation (10(-7) M CGRP, 1 h), induced CLR/RAMP1 recycling with similar kinetics (2-6 h), demonstrated by labeling receptors in living cells with antibodies to extracellular epitopes. Recycling of CLR/RAMP1 correlated with resensitization of CGRP-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i). Cycloheximide did not affect resensitization, but bafilomycin A(1), an inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases, abolished resensitization. Recycling CLR and RAMP1 were detected in endosomes containing Rab4a and Rab11a, and expression of GTPase-defective Rab4aS22N and Rab11aS25N inhibited resensitization. After sustained stimulation (10(-7) M CGRP, >2 h), CLR/RAMP1 trafficked to lysosomes. RAMP1 was degraded approximately 4-fold more rapidly than CLR (RAMP1, 45% degradation, 5 h; CLR, 54% degradation, 16 h), determined by Western blotting. Inhibitors of lysosomal, but not proteasomal, proteases prevented degradation. Sustained stimulation did not induce detectable mono- or polyubiquitination of CLR or RAMP1, determined by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Moreover, a RAMP1 mutant lacking the only intracellular lysine (RAMP1K142R) internalized and was degraded normally. Thus, after transient stimulation with CGRP, CLR and RAMP1 traffic from endosomes to the plasma membrane, which mediates resensitization. After sustained stimulation, CLR and RAMP1 traffic from endosomes to lysosomes by ubiquitin-independent mechanisms, where they are degraded at different rates.
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ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important cell signaling mediators, involved in essential physiological processes. GPCRs respond to a wide variety of ligands from light to large macromolecules, including hormones and small peptides. Unfortunately, mutations and dysregulation of GPCRs that induce a loss of function or alter expression can lead to disorders that are sometimes lethal. Therefore, the expression, trafficking, signaling and desensitization of GPCRs must be tightly regulated by different cellular systems to prevent disease. Although there is substantial knowledge regarding the mechanisms that regulate the desensitization and down-regulation of GPCRs, less is known about the mechanisms that regulate the trafficking and cell-surface expression of newly synthesized GPCRs. More recently, there is accumulating evidence that suggests certain GPCRs are able to interact with specific proteins that can completely change their fate and function. These interactions add on another level of regulation and flexibility between different tissue/cell-types. Here, we review some of the main interacting proteins of GPCRs. A greater understanding of the mechanisms regulating their interactions may lead to the discovery of new drug targets for therapy.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2014; 15(1):1112-1142. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling is precisely regulated. After activation, GPCRs are desensitized, internalized and either recycled to the cell surface or sorted to lysosomes for degradation. The main route for GPCR lysosomal sorting requires ubiquitination and the endosomal-sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). Four distinct ESCRT adaptor protein complexes act sequentially to bind and sort ubiquitinated cargo to lysosomes. Several studies now indicate that alternate pathways exist for GPCR lysosomal sorting that require only some components of the ESCRT and autophagy machinery. While direct GPCR ubiquitination is not required for alternate lysosomal sorting, new evidence suggests that ubiquitin may function indirectly to modulate adaptor protein activity. Here, we discuss the atypical regulation of GPCR lysosomal sorting by ubiquitination.Current opinion in cell biology 04/2014; 27C:44-50. · 14.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) inhibits microglia inflammatory activation in vitro. We here analyzed the involvement of CGRP and Receptor Component Protein (RCP) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Alpha-CGRP deficiency increased EAE scores which followed the scale alpha-CGRP null>heterozygote>wild type. In wild type mice, CGRP delivery into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 1) reduced chronic EAE (C-EAE) signs, 2) inhibited microglia activation (revealed by quantitative shape analysis), and 3) did not alter GFAP expression, cell density, lymphocyte infiltration, and peripheral lymphocyte production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-17, IL-2, and IL-4. RCP (probe for receptor involvement) was expressed in white matter microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and vascular-endothelial cells: in EAE, also in infiltrating lymphocytes. In relapsing-remitting EAE (R-EAE) RCP increased during relapse, without correlation with lymphocyte density. RCP nuclear localization (stimulated by CGRP in vitro) was I) increased in microglia and decreased in astrocytes (R-EAE), and II) increased in microglia by CGRP CSF delivery (C-EAE). Calcitonin like receptor was rarely localized in nuclei of control and relapse mice. CGRP increased in motoneurons. In conclusion, CGRP can inhibit microglia activation in vivo in EAE. CGRP and its receptor may represent novel protective factors in EAE, apparently acting through the differential cell-specific intracellular translocation of RCP.Journal of neuroimmunology 03/2014; · 2.84 Impact Factor