Post-endocytic sorting of calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein 1.
ABSTRACT Calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and the receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) comprise a receptor for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Although CGRP induces endocytosis of CLR/RAMP1, little is known about post-endocytic sorting of these proteins. We observed that the duration of stimulation with CGRP markedly affected post-endocytic sorting of CLR/RAMP1. In HEK and SK-N-MC cells, transient stimulation (10(-7) M CGRP, 1 h), induced CLR/RAMP1 recycling with similar kinetics (2-6 h), demonstrated by labeling receptors in living cells with antibodies to extracellular epitopes. Recycling of CLR/RAMP1 correlated with resensitization of CGRP-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i). Cycloheximide did not affect resensitization, but bafilomycin A(1), an inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases, abolished resensitization. Recycling CLR and RAMP1 were detected in endosomes containing Rab4a and Rab11a, and expression of GTPase-defective Rab4aS22N and Rab11aS25N inhibited resensitization. After sustained stimulation (10(-7) M CGRP, >2 h), CLR/RAMP1 trafficked to lysosomes. RAMP1 was degraded approximately 4-fold more rapidly than CLR (RAMP1, 45% degradation, 5 h; CLR, 54% degradation, 16 h), determined by Western blotting. Inhibitors of lysosomal, but not proteasomal, proteases prevented degradation. Sustained stimulation did not induce detectable mono- or polyubiquitination of CLR or RAMP1, determined by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Moreover, a RAMP1 mutant lacking the only intracellular lysine (RAMP1K142R) internalized and was degraded normally. Thus, after transient stimulation with CGRP, CLR and RAMP1 traffic from endosomes to the plasma membrane, which mediates resensitization. After sustained stimulation, CLR and RAMP1 traffic from endosomes to lysosomes by ubiquitin-independent mechanisms, where they are degraded at different rates.
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ABSTRACT: The enzymatic activity of peptidases must be tightly regulated to prevent uncontrolled hydrolysis of peptide bonds, which could have devastating effects in biological systems. Peptidases are often generated as inactive propeptidases, secreted with endogenous inhibitors or they are compartmentalized. Propeptidases become active after proteolytic removal of N-terminal activation peptides by other peptidases. Some peptidases only become active towards substrates only at certain pHs, thus confining activity to specific compartments or conditions. This review discusses the different roles proteolysis plays in regulating G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). At the cell-surface, certain GPCRs are regulated by the hydrolytic inactivation of bioactive peptides by membrane-anchored peptidases, which prevents signaling. Conversely, cell-surface peptidases can also generate bioactive peptides that directly activate GPCRs. Alternatively, cell-surface peptidases activated by GPCRs, can generate bioactive peptides to cause transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases, thereby promoting signaling. Certain peptidases can signals directly to cells, by cleaving GPCR to initiate intracellular signaling cascades. Intracellular peptidases also regulate GPCRs; lysosomal peptidases destroy GPCRs in lysosomes to permanently terminate signaling and mediate downregulation; endosomal peptidases cleave internalized peptide agonists to regulate GPCR recycling, resensitization and signaling; and soluble intracellular peptidases also participate in GPCR function by regulating the ubiquitination state of GPCRs, thereby altering GPCR signaling and fate. Although the use of peptidase inhibitors has already brought success in the treatment of diseases such as hypertension, the discovery of new regulatory mechanisms involving proteolysis that control GPCRs may provide additional targets to modulate dysregulated GPCR signaling in disease.British Journal of Pharmacology 10/2012; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent vasodilator, implicated in the pathogenesis of migraine. CGRP activates a receptor complex comprising, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). In vitro studies indicate recycling of CLR•RAMP1 is regulated by degradation of CGRP in early endosomes by endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1). However, it is not known if ECE-1 regulates the resensitization of CGRP-induced responses in functional arterial tissue. Experimental Approach: CLR, ECE-1a-d and RAMP1 expression in rat mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells (RMA-SMCs) and mesenteric arteries was analyzed by RT-PCR and by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. CGRP-induced signaling in cells was examined by measuring cAMP production and ERK activation. CGRP-induced relaxation of arteries was measured by isometric wire myography. ECE-1 was inhibited using the specific inhibitor, SM-19712. Key Results: RMA-SMCs and arteries contained mRNA for CLR, ECE-1a-d and RAMP1. ECE-1 was present in early endosomes of RMA-SMCs and in the smooth muscle layer of arteries. CGRP induced endothelium-independent relaxation of arteries. ECE-1 inhibition had no effect on initial CGRP-induced responses but reduced cAMP generation in RMA-SMCs and vasodilation in mesenteric arteries responses to subsequent CGRP challenges. Conclusions and Implications: ECE-1 regulates the resensitization of responses to CGRP in RMA-SMCs and mesenteric arteries. CGRP-induced relaxation does not involve endothelium-derived pathways. This is the first report of ECE-1 regulating CGRP responses in SMCs and arteries. ECE-1 inhibitors may attenuate an important vasodilatory pathway, implicated in primary headaches and may represent a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of migraine. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2012; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The sorting of signaling receptors within the endocytic system is important for appropriate cellular responses. After activation, receptors are trafficked to early endosomes and either recycled or sorted to lysosomes and degraded. Most receptors trafficked to lysosomes are modified with ubiquitin and recruited into an endosomal subdomain enriched in hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS), a ubiquitin-binding component of the endosomal-sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, and then sorted into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/lysosomes. However, not all receptors use ubiquitin or the canonical ESCRT machinery to sort to MVBs/lysosomes. This is exemplified by protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a G protein-coupled receptor for thrombin, which sorts to lysosomes independent of ubiquitination and HRS. We recently showed that the adaptor protein ALIX binds to PAR1, recruits ESCRT-III, and mediates receptor sorting to ILVs of MVBs. However, the mechanism that initiates PAR1 sorting at the early endosome is not known. We now report that the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) regulates PAR1 ubiquitin-independent sorting to MVBs through an ALIX-dependent pathway. AP-3 binds to a PAR1 cytoplasmic tail-localized tyrosine-based motif and mediates PAR1 lysosomal degradation independent of ubiquitination. Moreover, AP-3 facilitates PAR1 interaction with ALIX, suggesting that AP-3 functions before PAR1 engagement of ALIX and MVB/lysosomal sorting.Molecular biology of the cell 07/2012; 23(18):3612-23. · 5.98 Impact Factor