Evaluation of a card collection-based faecal immunochemical test in screening for colorectal cancer using a two-tier reflex approach.
ABSTRACT The guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) has been proved as a screening investigation for colorectal cancer, but has disadvantages. Newer faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) have many advantages, but yield higher positivity rates and are expensive. A two-tier reflex follow-up of gFOBT-positive individuals with a FIT before colonoscopy has been advocated as an efficient and effective approach.
A new simple and stable card collection FIT was evaluated.
1124 individuals who were gFOBT positive were asked to provide samples. 558 individuals participated, 320 refused and 246 did not return samples. No evidence of sampling bias was found. 302 individuals tested FIT negative and 256 tested positive. In the 302 FIT-negative individuals, 2 (0.7%) had cancer and 12 (4.0%) had large or multiple (high-risk) adenomatous polyps. In contrast, of 254 positive individuals, 47 (18.5%) had cancer and 54 (21.3%) had high-risk polyps. 93 (30.8%) of the FIT-negative individuals had a normal colonoscopy, but only 34 (13.4%) of the FIT-positive individuals had no pathology. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (and 95% CIs) for cancer were 95.9% (84.8 to 99.3), 59.2% (54.7 to 63.5), 2.35 (2.08 to 2.65) and 0.07 (0.02 to 0.27), and for cancer and high-risk polyps were 87.8% (80.1 to 92.9), 65.3% (60.6 to 69.7), 2.53 (2.19 to 2.93) and 0.19 (0.11 to 0.31), respectively.
A two-tier reflex screening algorithm, in which gFOBT-positive participants are tested with a FIT, is effective in identifying individuals at high risk of significant colorectal neoplasia. This strategy is transferable across different FIT formats. This approach has been adopted for the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme.
Article: Quantitative fluorescence determination of long-fragment DNA in stool as a marker for the early detection of colorectal cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A variety of molecular markers have been evaluated for the development of a non-invasive approach to the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. We aimed to validate the diagnostic accuracy, using the same threshold as in the previous pilot study, of fluorescent long DNA test as a relatively simple and inexpensive tool for colorectal cancer detection. A case-control study was conducted on 100 healthy subjects and 100 patients at first diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Human long-fragment DNA in stool was quantified by fluorescence primers and a standard curve and expressed in DNA nanograms. We validated the 25-ng value, which emerged as the most accurate cut-off in the pilot study, obtaining 79% (95% CI, 71-87%) sensitivity and 89% (95% CI, 83-95%) specificity. Specificity was very high for all cut-off values (15-40 ng) analyzed, ranging from 78 to 96%. Sensitivity was only slightly lower, reaching 84% at the lowest cut-off and maintaining a good level at the higher values. Diagnostic potential was independent of gender, age and tumor site. Fecal DNA analysis is a non-invasive and fairly simple test showing high diagnostic potential. These characteristics, together with the small amount of stool required, make it potentially suitable to be used alongside or as an alternative to current non-invasive screening approaches. Our next step will be to validate these results in a large-scale cohort study of a screening population, which is needed prior to implementation into clinical practice.Cellular oncology: the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Oncology 02/2009; 31(1):11-7. · 4.17 Impact Factor
Article: Screening for colorectal cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although there are several methods available for colon cancer screening, none is optimal. This article reviews methods for screening, including fecal occult blood tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, CT colonography, capsule endoscopy, and double contrast barium enema. A simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and relatively sensitive screening test is needed to identify people at risk for developing advanced adenomas or colorectal cancer who would benefit from colonoscopy. It is hoped that new markers will be identified that perform better. Until then we fortunately have a variety of screening strategies that do work.Gastroenterology Clinics of North America 04/2008; 37(1):97-115, vii. · 2.62 Impact Factor