Helicobacter infection in the surfactant protein D-deficient mouse.
ABSTRACT Surfactant protein D (SP-D), a component of innate immunity, is expressed in the gastric mucosa and is up-regulated in the presence of Helicobacter infection. SP-D binds to Helicobacter in vitro, suggesting the involvement of SP-D in Helicobacter-induced immune responses. The aim of this study was to determine the role of SP-D in gastric epithelial defense in vivo.
Specific pathogen-free SP-D-deficient mice (SP-D(-/-)) and C57BL/6 wild-type controls were challenged by gavage with different doses of Helicobacter felis, a mouse-adapted Helicobacter strain. Mice were assessed for colonization rates and density of infection. Inflammatory responses were measured by neutrophil counting and T-cell responses by proliferation assays on spleen cells stimulated with H. felis sonicate. The in vitro effect of SP-D on Helicobacter uptake by monocyte-derived dendritic cells was assessed by confocal microscopy and FACS analyses.
SP-D(-/-) mice were more susceptible to low-dose infectious challenge than C57BL/6 controls (p = .02). The density of colonization was higher in the SP-D(-/-) infected mice. Neutrophil infiltrates were lower in the SP-D(-/-) mice, particularly in the acid-secreting regions of the stomach. T-cell proliferative responses to Helicobacter antigen were reduced in SP-D(-/-) mice (p = .001) after 12 weeks infection. In vitro uptake of Helicobacter by dendritic cells was significantly enhanced in the presence of SP-D (p = .001).
In the absence of SP-D, Helicobacter uptake by dendritic cells is impaired. This provides an explanation for the diminished inflammation and immune responses in the SP-D(-/-) mice.
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ABSTRACT: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collagenous glycoprotein that is secreted into the pulmonary airspaces by alveolar type II and nonciliated bronchiolar cells. SP-D exhibits Ca(++)-dependent carbohydrate binding in vitro and is structurally related to the collagenous C-type lectins, including serum conglutinin, serum mannose-binding proteins, and surfactant protein A. Preliminary studies showed calcium- and saccharide-dependent binding of fluorescein-conjugated or radioiodinated SP-D to a variety of microorganisms, including Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. A laboratory strain of Escherichia coli (Y1088) was chosen to further examine the mechanism(s) of binding. Binding of SP-D to Y1088 was time dependent, saturable, and inhibited by cold SP-D or competing saccharides; Scatchard analysis gave a Kd of 2 x 10(-11) M. At higher concentrations, SP-D also caused Ca(++)-dependent agglutination of Y1088 that was inhibited by alpha-glucosyl-containing saccharides, antisera to the carbohydrate-binding domain of SP-D, or Y1088 LPS. Lectin blots showed specific binding of 125I-SP-D to Y1088 LPS, as well as LPS from other several strains of enteric Gram-negative bacteria. Immunogold studies demonstrated strong and uniform surface labeling of the bacteria. Rat and human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) caused Ca(++)-dependent agglutination of E. coli that was dose dependent and inhibited by competing saccharides or anti-SP-D. SP-D was selectively and efficiently adsorbed from rat BAL by incubation with E. coli, and incubation of E. coli with radiolabeled rat type II cell medium revealed that SP-D is the major E. coli-binding protein secreted by freshly isolated cells in culture. We suggest that SP-D plays important roles in the lung's defense against Gram-negative bacteria.Journal of Clinical Investigation 08/1992; 90(1):97-106. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Absorption studies were performed in 17 patients with ulcerative colitis operated on with colectomy and an ileal two-limbed J-pouch anastomosis. The patients were studied 3 and greater than or equal to 18 months after closure of the temporary ileostomy. Increased stool mass (median, 609 g/24 h) was found in all patients and was unchanged with time. Moderate steatorrhoea was present in 29% of the patients 3 months postoperatively, but faecal fat excretion normalized with time. Calcium absorption was normal in all but one patient regardless of time after operation. An abnormal bacterial deconjugation, evaluated by a 14C-glycocholic acid breath test was present in 27% of the patients and increased significantly with time. Forty per cent of the patients had increased faecal bile acid excretion. B12 malabsorption was present in 29-35% of the patients. In conclusion, ileal J-pouch anastomosis for ulcerative colitis causes increased stool mass in all patients and produces moderate bile acid deconjugation and malabsorption in about one-third to half. Substitution therapy with vitamin B12 is necessary in about one-third of the patients. Intestinal adaptation as far as absorption is concerned is minimal after the first 3 postoperative months.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 02/1991; 26(1):65-72. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are essential in the protection from organ-specific autoimmune diseases. In the pancreas, they inhibit actions of autoreactive T cells and thereby prevent diabetes progression. The signals that control the generation, the maintenance, or the expansion of regulatory T cell pool in vivo remain poorly understood. Here we show that a transient pulse of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in the islets during the priming phase of diabetes is sufficient to inhibit disease onset by promoting the expansion of intraislet CD4+CD25+ T cell pool. Approximately 40-50% of intraislet CD4+ T cells expressed the CD25 marker and exhibited characteristics of regulatory T cells including small size, high level of intracellular CTLA-4, expression of Foxp3, and transfer of protection against diabetes. Results from in vivo incorporation of BrdUrd revealed that the generation of a high frequency of regulatory T cells in the islets is due to in situ expansion upon TGF-beta expression. Thus, these findings demonstrate a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which TGF-beta inhibits autoimmune diseases via regulation of the size of the CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell pool in vivo.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2004; 101(13):4572-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor