Article

Evaluation of hypothalamic-specific autoimmunity in patients with narcolepsy.

Neurology Service, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona and Institut d'Investigació Biomédica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.
Sleep (Impact Factor: 5.06). 02/2007; 30(1):27-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An autoimmune-mediated mechanism is considered the most probable etiology for narcolepsy. However, this hypothesis remains unproven. Since narcolepsy is characterized by dysfunction of the hypothalamic hypocretinergic (orexinergic) system, we evaluated the presence of hypothalamic-specific antibodies in sera and CSF of 25 hypocretin-deficient and 6 non-deficient narcoleptic patients by immunohistochemistry and analyzing a screening of a rat cDNA expression hypothalamic library. There was no hypothalamic-specific reactivity in serum or CSF by inmmunohistochemistry. The screening of the hypothalmic library detected some reactive clones but not a common reactivity. Our study did not find any evidence of hypothalamic-specific autoimmunity in narcolepsy.

0 Followers
 · 
178 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IntroductionVoltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) antibodies are associated with neuromyotonia, limbic encephalitis and Morvan syndrome.
    Revue Neurologique 02/2008; 164(2):181-184. DOI:10.1016/j.neurol.2007.08.007 · 0.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although narcolepsy was first described in the late nineteenth century in Germany and France, much of the research on this disorder has been conducted at Stanford University, starting with Drs. William C. Dement and Christian Guilleminault in the 1970s. The prevalence of narcolepsy was established, and a canine model discovered. Following the finding in Japan that almost all patients with narcolepsy carry a specific HLA subtype, HLA-DR2, Hugh Mac Devitt, F. Carl Grumet, and Larry Steinman initiated immunological studies, but results were generally negative. Using the narcoleptic canines, Dr. Nishino and I established that stimulants increased wakefulness by stimulating dopaminergic transmission while antidepressants suppress cataplexy via adrenergic reuptake inhibition. A linkage study was initiated with Dr. Grumet in 1988, and after 10 years of work, the canine narcolepsy gene was cloned by in 1999 and identified as the hypocretin (orexin) receptor 2. In 1992, studying African Americans, we also found that DQ0602 rather than DR2 was a better marker for narcolepsy across all ethnic groups. In 2000, Dr. Nishino and I, in collaboration with Dr. Lammers in the Netherlands, found that hypocretin 1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were undetectable in most cases, establishing hypocretin deficiency as the cause of narcolepsy. Pursuing this research, our and Dr. Siegel's group, examining postmortem brains, found that the decreased CSF hypocretin 1 was secondary to the loss the 70,000 neurons producing hypocretin in the hypothalamus. This finding revived the autoimmune hypothesis but attempts at demonstrating immune targeting of hypocretin cells failed until 2013. At this date, Dr. Elisabeth Mellins and I discovered that narcolepsy is characterized by the presence of autoreactive CD4(+) T cells to hypocretin fragments when presented by DQ0602. Following reports that narcolepsy cases were triggered by vaccinations and infections against influenza A 2009 pH1N1, a new pandemic strain that erupted in 2009, our groups also established that a small epitope of pH1N1 resembles hypocretin and is likely involved in molecular mimicry. Although much remains to be done, these achievements, establishing hypocretin deficiency as the cause of narcolepsy, demonstrating its autoimmune basis, and showing molecular mimicry between hypocretin and sequences derived from a pandemic strain of influenza, are likely to remain classics in human immunology.
    Immunologic Research 05/2014; 58(2-3). DOI:10.1007/s12026-014-8513-4 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events (Manual) has provided standardized definitions for tonic and phasic REM sleep without atonia (RSWA). This study used Manual criteria to characterize REM sleep in patients with narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH). A retrospective review of PSG data from ICSD-2 defined patients with narcolepsy or IH, performed by two board certified sleep medicine physicians. Data compiled included REM sleep epochs and the presence in REM sleep of epochs scored as sustained muscle activity (tonic), and excessive transient muscle activity (phasic) as defined by Manual criteria. PSG data from 8 narcolepsy patients (mean age: 27.5 years; age range: 11-55) showed mean ± standard deviation values for: total REM sleep epochs 205 ± 46.1; RSWA/ phasic epochs 56.1 ± 25.4; and RSWA/tonic epochs 15.0 ± 10.7. PSG data from 8 IH patients (mean age: 33.1 years; age range: 20-57) showed mean ± standard deviation values of total REM sleep epochs 163.8 ± 67.9; RSWA/phasic epochs 6.2 ± 3.5; and RSWA/tonic epochs 0.2 ± 0.4. Comparison revealed intergroup differences in phasic REM sleep (p < 0.01) and tonic REM sleep (p < 0.01) were significantly increased in narcoleptics compared to IH. Our retrospective analysis showed that RSWA phasic activity and RSWA tonic activity are significantly increased in patients meeting ICSD-2 criteria for narcolepsy compared to patients meeting ICSD-2 criteria for IH. This robust difference, with further validation, could be useful as electrophysiological criteria differentiating the two disorders and understanding the physiological differences. DelRosso LM; Chesson AL Jr; Hoque R. Characterization of REM Sleep without atonia in patients with narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia using AASM scoring manual criteria. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(7):675-680.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2013; 9(7):675-80. DOI:10.5664/jcsm.2836 · 2.83 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
36 Downloads
Available from
Jun 10, 2014