Prevalence, incidence and predictors of severe anemia with zidovudine-containing regimens in Afircan adults with HIV infection within the DART trial

Joint Clinical Research Centre, Kampala, Uganda.
Antiviral therapy (Impact Factor: 3.14). 01/2006; 11(6):741-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To describe the prevalence, incidence and predictors of severe anaemia in previously untreated symptomatic HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T-cells <200 cells/mm(3) initiating zidovudine-containing regimens in Africa.
DART is a randomized trial comparing two strategies for HIV/AIDS management in Uganda and Zimbabwe.
We analysed the occurrence of anaemia at weeks 4 and 12, and then every 12 weeks. We also evaluated sex, age, WHO stage, body mass index (BMI), baseline laboratory measurements and first regimen as predictors of developing grade 4 anaemia (<6.5 mg/dl) by week 48 using logistic regression.
To May 2005, 3,314 participants (65% women, 23% at WHO stage 4, median age=37 years, baseline CD4+ T-cell=86 cells/mm(3) and median baseline haemoglobin=11.4 g/dl) had a median 72 weeks follow-up. Prevalence of grade 4 anaemia was 0.70, 2.0%, 0.5% and <0.5% at weeks 4, 12, 24 and > or =36, respectively. Overall, 219 (6.6%) participants developed grade 4 anaemia by week 48; women and those with lower haemoglobin, CD4+ T-cell count and BMI at baseline were at significantly higher risk (P<0.05), but not those with lower neutrophils or receiving cotrimoxazole at baseline.
We observed a higher incidence of grade 4 anaemia than in studies from industrialized countries, which is likely to be due in part to population characteristics and in part to a higher rate of concurrent HIV-related clinical events. Clinical vigilance and haemoglobin measurements 4, 8 and 12 weeks after starting zidovudine could help to manage serious anaemia.

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Available from: Cissy Kityo, Jul 29, 2015
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    • "Amongst patients in an urban HIV clinic in Uganda, severe anemia improved with ART in the majority of patients. These findings suggested that baseline severe anemia should not be used as a criterion for avoiding the use of zidovudine in patients initiating ART in resource-limited settings [15] [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Among those with HIV, anemia is a strong risk factor for disease progression and death independent of CD4 count and viral load. Understanding the role of anemia in HIV treatment is critical to developing strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality. We conducted a prospective analysis among 10,259 HIV-infected adults initiating first-line ART between April 2004 and August 2009 in Johannesburg, South Africa. The prevalence of anemia at ART initiation was 25.8%. Mean hemoglobin increased independent of baseline CD4. Females, lower BMI, WHO stage III/IV, lower CD4 count, and zidovudine use were associated with increased risk of developing anemia during follow-up. After initiation of ART, hemoglobin improved, regardless of regimen type and the degree of immunosuppression. Between 0 and 6 months on ART, the magnitude of hemoglobin increase was linearly related to CD4 count. However, between 6 and 24 months on ART, hemoglobin levels showed a sustained overall increase, the magnitude of which was similar regardless of baseline CD4 level. This increase in hemoglobin was seen even among patients on zidovudine containing regimens. Since low hemoglobin is an established adverse prognostic marker, prompt identification of anemia may result in improved morbidity and mortality of patients initiating ART.
    Journal of Tropical Medicine 08/2013; 2013:162950. DOI:10.1155/2013/162950
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    • "The proportion of patients seen with peripheral neuropathy (9%), anaemia (3%), drug rash (2%) and psychosis (1%) in this study was lower than those reported in other studies (Ssali et al. 2006). Our cohort has been maintained for over a decade using the same methods for clinical, laboratory and data management (French et al. 2000; Watera et al. 2006). "
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    Tropical Medicine & International Health 04/2009; 14(5):556-63. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02259.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    • "The detection and treatment of anaemia is important especially for patients who are about to start zidovudine-containing regimens of HAART. In another study from Uganda, participants with low haemoglobin who were started on a zidovudine containing regimen had an increased risk of developing grade 4 anaemia (Ssali et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence and incidence of anaemia in HIV-positive and negative individuals; to identify risk factors for anaemia, prior to the introduction of HAART; and to determine the validity of the clinical diagnosis of anaemia. Between 1990 and 2003, we followed a rural population based cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected participants. Prevalence and incidence of anaemia were determined clinically and by laboratory measurements. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of clinical diagnosis were calculated. The prevalence of anaemia at enrolment was 18.9% among HIV-positive and 12.9% among HIV-negative participants (P = 0.065). Incidence of anaemia increased with HIV disease progression, from 103 per 1000 person-years of observation among those with CD4 counts >500 to 289 per 1000 person-years of observation among those with CD4 counts <200. Compared to laboratory diagnosis, the clinical diagnosis of anaemia had a sensitivity of 17.8%, specificity of 96.8%, a positive predictive value of 50.6% and a negative predictive value of 86.4%. Being female, low CD4 cell counts, HIV-positive, wasting syndrome, WHO stage 3 or 4, malaria, fever, pneumonia and oral candidiasis were associated with prevalent anaemia. Anaemia prevalence and incidence were higher among HIV-positive than negative participants. Compared to laboratory diagnosis, clinical detection of anaemia had a low sensitivity. Clinicians working in settings with limited laboratory support must be conscious of the risk of anaemia when managing HIV/AIDS patients, particularly when using antiretroviral drugs which by themselves may cause anaemia as a side effect. We recommend that haemoglobin should be measured before starting ART and monthly for the first three months.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 07/2008; 13(6):788-94. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02069.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
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