Article

Prevalence, incidence and predictors of severe anaemia with zidovudine-containing regimens in African adults with HIV infection within the DART trial.

Joint Clinical Research Centre, Kampala, Uganda.
Antiviral therapy (Impact Factor: 3.14). 01/2006; 11(6):741-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To describe the prevalence, incidence and predictors of severe anaemia in previously untreated symptomatic HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T-cells <200 cells/mm(3) initiating zidovudine-containing regimens in Africa.
DART is a randomized trial comparing two strategies for HIV/AIDS management in Uganda and Zimbabwe.
We analysed the occurrence of anaemia at weeks 4 and 12, and then every 12 weeks. We also evaluated sex, age, WHO stage, body mass index (BMI), baseline laboratory measurements and first regimen as predictors of developing grade 4 anaemia (<6.5 mg/dl) by week 48 using logistic regression.
To May 2005, 3,314 participants (65% women, 23% at WHO stage 4, median age=37 years, baseline CD4+ T-cell=86 cells/mm(3) and median baseline haemoglobin=11.4 g/dl) had a median 72 weeks follow-up. Prevalence of grade 4 anaemia was 0.70, 2.0%, 0.5% and <0.5% at weeks 4, 12, 24 and > or =36, respectively. Overall, 219 (6.6%) participants developed grade 4 anaemia by week 48; women and those with lower haemoglobin, CD4+ T-cell count and BMI at baseline were at significantly higher risk (P<0.05), but not those with lower neutrophils or receiving cotrimoxazole at baseline.
We observed a higher incidence of grade 4 anaemia than in studies from industrialized countries, which is likely to be due in part to population characteristics and in part to a higher rate of concurrent HIV-related clinical events. Clinical vigilance and haemoglobin measurements 4, 8 and 12 weeks after starting zidovudine could help to manage serious anaemia.

Full-text

Available from: Cissy Kityo, Jun 13, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
83 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Zidovudine (AZT), a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor was the first breakthrough in AIDS therapy in 1990.This study was conducted with an aim to determine prevalence of AZT induced anaemia in HIV infected patients initiated on AZT containing anti retroviral therapy(ART) regimen and also to find out any risk factor for causing AZT induced anaemia. Study was carried out in ART centre, M.K.C.G, MCH, Berhampur between Jan 2009 and Dec 2011. HIV infected patients registered at ART centre were treated according to National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) guidelines. Patients (n = 1221) with Hb >8 gm/dl were prescribed AZT based ART regimen. Patients having anaemia (4 count, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage) with risk of developing anaemia was also calculated. 178 (14.6 %) patients on AZT regimen developed anaemia. Patients with low CD4 count were more prone to develop severe anaemia. Age, sex, weight, WHO clinical stage had no relation with development of anaemia. Incidence of AZT induced anaemia was very high and patients having low CD4 count were more susceptible to develop anaemia.
    Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion 06/2015; 31(2). DOI:10.1007/s12288-014-0426-9 · 0.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess trends in haemoglobin recovery among HIV-infected patients initiated on zidovudine-based combined antiretroviral therapy stratified by baseline haemoglobin level.Methods Haemoglobin data from non-pregnant adult patients initiating combined antiretroviral therapy in rural north-central Nigeria between June 2009 and May 2011 were analysed using a linear mixed effects model to assess the interaction between time, zidovudine-containing regimen and baseline haemoglobin level on the outcome of subsequent haemoglobin level. Best fit curves were created for baseline haemoglobin in the 10th, 25th, 75th and 90th percentiles.ResultsWe included 313 patients with 736 measures of haemoglobin in the analysis (239 on zidovudine and 74 on non-zidovudine-containing regimens). Median haemoglobin increased over time in both groups, with differences in haemoglobin response over time related to baseline haemoglobin levels and zidovudine use (p = 0.003). The groups of patients on zidovudine at the 10th and 90th percentiles had downward sloping curves while all other groups had upward trending haemoglobin levels.Conclusion Although haemoglobin levels increased overall for patients on zidovudine-containing regimens, for those in the 10th and 90th percentiles haemoglobin levels trended downward over time. These results have implications for decisions regarding when to initiate, switch from or avoid the use of zidovudine.
    International Journal of STD & AIDS 10/2013; 25(5). DOI:10.1177/0956462413506887 · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: There is a risk of anaemia among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing zidovudine (ZDV) recommended in first-line regimens in the WHO guidelines. We estimated the risk of severe anaemia after initiation of a ZDV-containing regimen in HIV-infected children included in the IeDEA West African database. Methods: Standardized collection of data from HIV-infected children (positive PCR<18 months or positive serology ≥18 months) followed up in HIV programmes was included in the regional IeDEA West Africa collaboration. Ten clinical centres from seven countries contributed (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Mali and Senegal) to this collection. Inclusion criteria were age <16 years and starting ART. We explored the data quality of haemoglobin documentation over time and the incidence and predictors of severe anaemia (Hb<7g/dL) per 100 child-years of follow-up over the duration of first-line antiretroviral therapy. Results: As of December 2009, among the 2933 children included in the collaboration, 45% were girls, median age was five years; median CD4 cell percentage was 13%; median weight-for-age z-score was-2.7; and 1772 (60.4%) had a first-line ZDV-containing regimen. At baseline, 70% of the children with a first-line ZDV-containing regimen had a haemoglobin measure available versus 76% in those not on ZDV (p≤0.01): the prevalence of severe anaemia was 3.0% (n=38) in the ZDV group versus 10.2% (n=89) in those without (p<0. 01). Over the first-line follow-up, 58.9% of the children had ≥1 measure of haemoglobin available in those exposed to ZDV versus 60.4% of those not (p=0.45). Severe anaemia occurred in 92 children with an incidence of 2.47 per 100 child-years of follow-up in those on a ZDV-containing regimen versus 4.25 in those not (p≤0.01). Adjusted for age at ART initiation and first-line regimen, a weight-for-age z-score ≤-3 was a strong predictor associated with a 5.59 times risk of severe anaemia (p<0.01). Conclusions: Severe anaemia is frequent at baseline and guides the first-line ART prescription, but its incidence seems rare among children on ART. Severe malnutrition at baseline is a strong predictor for development of severe anaemia, and interventions to address this should form an integral component of clinical care.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 09/2013; 16(1):18024. DOI:10.7448/IAS.16.1.18024 · 4.21 Impact Factor